The world’s first computer
Today it is difficult to imagine our life without computers and tablets. These technical devices not only facilitated our lives but also made it more rich and varied. Modern student or high school student does not understand, how were his parents, until he invented the world’s first computer?
A bit of history
The desire to facilitate mathematical calculations were born, probably, together with the first man. Even 3000 years BC in ancient Babylon was invented by the first account, called abacus. But after 2,500 years the Chinese have perfected this device and came up with bills on the straws, where counting used bone. They called their invention suanpan.
In Russia, the first abacus appeared in the 16th century – each wire was located 10 wooden balls. In 1912 under the project of the Russian scientist A. N. Krylov was built a unique machine, which can be used to integrate ordinary differential equations.
The development of computers
The world’s first computer was created in America and it was located at Harvard University. It was in 1941 and made this car an American mathematician from Harvard Howard Axon, which was aided in this by four specialists of the IBM company, for whom it was created. The basis for the development of the first computer were the calculations of Charles Babbage.
Only three years later, after numerous tests and trials, the launch of the first computer, called the mark 1. It happened in August 1944, and this event became the beginning of a new era of computer technology.
The cost of the first computer was about $ 500,000 and the area which it occupied, required a separate room. The machine body is made of stainless steel and the length of all wires that were equipped with the world’s first computer was around 800 kilometers.
The mark 1 operated 72 numbers, which consisted of 23 decimal digits and performed the functions of addition and subtraction – in one such operation, he spent about 3 seconds. Also, it easily coped with multiplication and division. These calculations took twice as long.
In fact, this computer was an advanced form of calculating machine, for the introduction of needed paper tape. This machine was actually the first computer that could carry out the necessary work processes without the help of man. Used it for complex calculations of ballistic missiles the Air Force of America.
American computer «ENIAC»
This computer was created on 14 February 1946, and this date is considered the Day of a geek. In fact, it was the first machine that could be called programmable. The weight of this «small» was about 30 tons, and she was successfully operated until 1956.
This computer was first used by the binary number system, which subsequently used the more modern models. The order for this car came from the army – it was planned to use aircraft and artillery. Earlier on compiling ballistic tables used by the military, worked as a staff. The world’s first computer ENIAC took on these calculations, which were previously carried out using a simple slide rule and was far from perfect.
The first computer in the Soviet Union
Small Electronic calculating Machine, or abbreviated as SECM was first launched in the Soviet Union in 1950 and was the first computer that you worked on the whole space of continental Europe. On the creation of the first Soviet computer, a team of scientists led by Professor Lebedev S. A. All the necessary research and development carried out in Kiev Institute of electronics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
The beginning of the development of the first EMM Soviet Union began in 1948, when the US and the UK have already appeared the first such machine. But it is now information about any technique, you can easily find on the Internet, and then in the postwar period all the nuances of the structure of such apparatus is kept in the strictest confidence. In fact, Lebedev created a project computer, relying only on their knowledge and assumptions.
In August 1950 the famous mathematician A. A. Lyapunov is the first computer program, which she performed flawlessly. SAM successfully operated until 1956 and performed exclusively important state calculations, because it was the only computer in the USSR. Schedule of work this machine is approved personally by the President of the USSR. After the computer was incapacitated, it was dismantled into separate parts, many of which are still kept at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute.
The first computers were so expensive and had such a large area that could be used only in state institutions or the military industry. Then anyone and had no idea that just a half century, the computer will become absolutely routine part of our lives and will be available to almost everyone. What would our ancestors saw modern tablet computers that fit in a purse, and so not like the world’s first computer.
But I’d like to believe that this is not the limit of human imagination and soon we should expect even more new and improved computers.