The solid metal
Metal is one of the main elements on planet Earth. This is the most used material by mankind and even our body is 3% consists of it. In the chemical table of the density depends on the hardness of the substance. The title of the solid metal divided between iridium and osmium (density of about 22.6 gsm2), because it is very difficult and costly to clear them from impurities and to obtain the substance in its pure form. For comparison, the osmium weighs three times more than lead. If its a powder to fill a tiny bottle, it will be much heavier than buckets of water.
The main value of solid metals ability to preserve their properties under any circumstances. Osmium, for example, melts at a temperature of 3033 degrees Celsius and boils — at 5,000 degrees. Osmium and iridium are the platinum group and was opened in 1803, the English chemist. Tennant. Osmium is named the Greek word «smell» for unpleasant pairs formed during the reactions; and the iridium – «the rainbow».
Osmium aggressive substance, such as mercury and bismuth, as well as very toxic. In its allocation of platinum raw materials requires strict security measures. The nature of the osmium found in combination with iridium in polymetallic ores. Its exceptional hardness, wear resistance and refractoriness give the opportunity to use the metal for the coating of different friction knots in the composition of the alloy with the tungsten of the filament, and in combination with platinum in pacemakers. Complete lack of magnetic properties makes osmium indispensable in high-precision measuring instruments, compasses and watches. Interestingly, the composition of the aluminum material becomes extremely ductile and can stretch out several times.
Iridium by itself is not toxic but some compounds are poisonous. It does not corrode, even if heated to 2000 degrees. Melts at a temperature of 2466 degrees, and drip at 4428. Due to the high density substance is most often found closer to the center of earth’s core, and therefore the cost of osmium and iridium is higher than platinum and gold, because their production is extremely costly, and on the surface its content is not enough. The annual production of metals amounts to about 3 tons. Iridium can be found on the Golden feather where it lies in the form of a light bulb at the tip. Fuel tanks in space vehicles, crucibles for melting furnaces, spark ignition internal combustion engines, and even the standard kilogram is made of iridium alloys.