The first tank in the world
During the First World war there was an urgent need to create armored vehicles that had high firepower and excellent maneuverability. It tanks have become a model of powerful weapons, excellent mobility and reliable protection. And who created the first tank in the world, and what was its design?
The first tank in the world created by A. A. Porohovschikova, who was a Russian designer and pilot. The idea to create such a machine came to him when he saw soldiers running by machine-gun fire of the enemy. The head designer, came up with the idea that the storm the enemy trenches it is better to entrust the military machine, which will be «dressed» in armor and equipped with a machine gun.
Prior to the creation of a fighting machine started in February 1915. The first tank in the world was called «Rover». On your test run the machine came out in the same year, in late spring (may). Structurally, the «Rover» had all the necessary elements, which are present in combat vehicles (body armor, weapons in the tower, crawler mover, etc.).
As the supporting structure of the first tank in the world served as the welded frame is made with 4 rotating wheels, «obvinenie» tracks of sufficiently large width. Using a special tensioner and idler drum track stretched. Two rotatable steering wheel operated tank. When he moved on a hard surface, he had to rely on leading drum and the wheel. When driving on soft ground combat vehicle seems to «fit» on the tape.
The length of the «Rover» was equal to 360 centimeters in width was 2 meters and the height is half a meter (excluding tower). The machine weighed approximately 4 tons. His first test fighting machine porohovschikova was a great success, but for some reason continue to learn it did not. And a little later the first prototype tank was a British development, which is designed in September 1915.
Small and Big Willie
Little Willie was a armoured tractor which was successfully tested in September, 1915. The idea of its creation was expressed by Colonel Britain Swindon.
However, an armored vehicle had to modify slightly, causing the tank turned into a Big Willy or a tank Mark I. It can rightly be considered the first tank in the world, which became mass-produced. On the front line Mark I sent in 1916.
Length Mark I was 8 feet. It was made in the form of a steel rectangular box that had a diamond-shaped side tracks. This design allowed the vehicle to overcome difficult sections on the battlefield and easy to move in the trenches.
As protection from rifle and machine-gun fire as the armor has a thickness of 10-12 mm. The armament of the tank consisted of one cannon and four machine guns. While such weapons were only «males» Big Willie, «females» were deprived of guns and had less machine guns.
Inside the tank looked like the bridge of the ship. Walking in it was possible, not bending over. The commander and the tank driver was located in a separate compartment. To start the engine Big Willie needed the power of three people who twisted the knob until, until will not start the motor.
To move the Mark I could at a speed of 6 km/h. On rough terrain the car was moving with much lower speed of 2-3 km/h. Even though slow moving, the tank is awful was shaking – this happened due to the fact that part of the tank was made of rollers. There were no means of communication. In addition, the reliability of the design of the tank was very low, and the machines were often out of order. The lack of Big Willie was considered narrow tracks, quickly sink into soft ground, causing the tank to be «on the rocks». Inside was not provided, and ventilation, which soldiers often had (even under fire) to jump outside to get some fresh air and relax from the smell of exhaust.
Despite all the flaws, the tank was used extensively at the front in the battle of 1916 was used 18 combat vehicles. Then in London it is a requirement that such tanks were delivered to the front in the amount of 1000 copies. In the future, the design Great, Willy every time improved, and more modern model is much ahead on the technical parameters of the previous one.