The deepest well in the world
Drilling – a method of mineral extraction and water known to man since the days of Ancient China. Humanity is boring the earth with 254-251 G. B. e.., and since it was delivered a few records for deep wells. The last of these being known in the scientific world the Kola superdeep borehole, created with a research goal to study the structure of deep rocks of the Earth.
Journey deep into the Earth
Until 2008, this well has retained the title and longest – 12262 meters, but oil companies crossed the threshold wells drilled length 12290m at an acute angle to the earth’s surface. It happened in Qatar in the field al-Shaheen.
Three years, this record remained unmatched until in 2011, the implementation of the project Sakhalin-1, was drilled a new borehole length already in 12345m. Its appearance oil field Odoptu-sea. And already in 2013, with a record length in meters 12700 appeared well Z42 Cywinska in the field, in the framework of the same project Sakhalin-1.
And yet the deepest well in the world is the Kola drilled directly into the rocks. Local residents of the Murmansk region, where there was such a large hole in the earth’s crust (10 km from the town of Zapolyarny) gave her the title of ultra-deep, and that’s what it is called in many sources.
The decision, where it was necessary to drill a well, it’s not a coincidence. The Baltic shield in the North-West of the East European platform (the location of the wells) are interesting primarily to the fact that here rise to the surface by ancient volcanic rocks, the age of which was determined within 3 billion years, despite the fact that the age of the planet does not exceed 4.5 billion years. To obtain information about these species was necessary for the global scientific community. Information about sedimentary rocks located at the depth of 8 km, was already obtained in the study of oil wells, and studied volcanic rocks were extracted from the wells is just 1-2 km depth.
The history of drilling
Rock drilling began on 24 may 1970, and was dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Lenin’s birthday. To the level of 7 km, and the drilling process is no different: Bur almost freely passes through granite layers, which differ by a uniform texture.
Deeper was discovered layered rocks, are much less durable than granite. The work has led to a constant jamming of the drill head, it broke off, it was cemented and then go into business. This whole process took a lot of time, and lasted for several years.
In 1984, after a short stop the work of the deepest wells in the world has been damage to equipment – drillstring broke and 5 meters. specialized pipes was left on the bottom. Had to start drilling again, but now with the depth of 7000 meters. As a result reached a record high of 12262 m. in which the repeated damage to the equipment.
The results of the work
Scientists were able to perform all the tasks that were put before them. In addition to technology development and implementation of ultra-deep drilling, researchers have discovered the world surprising facts about the structure of the plutonic rocks of the planet. The theoretical assumptions about the location of solid basalt at a depth of 5000M.. immediately after the granite layer was not confirmed. In fact, they were not found at all, and the layer of granite after the depth of 7000m. moved in a loose fractured rock.
Also changed the representation and the formation of ore rocks. At a depth of 9-12 km, where it is overlain by a porous fissured rock, was discovered heavily mineralized water, which is one of the factors of ore formation. In addition, these layers were found significant reserves of gold (1G. for 1 ton of rock is sufficient for industrial production). However, the extraction of metal from such a depth is still in question.
Currently, due to lack of funding further research and deepening in the rock are not maintained. The deepest in the world well preserved, the equipment is dismantled. Perhaps someday she still will serve future generations.