The deepest trench on Earth
Height is able to circle your head and make your heart beat furiously. However, a far greater feeling you can get, if you go down to the bottom of the ocean. Especially if you do it at a distance in excess of many kilometers. I can only imagine how far down it goes deepest depression on Earth. And without doubt this is the Mariana trench, which is also referred to as the Mariana trench for the external similarity with the groove have the form of a Crescent.
The location and size of the Mariana trench
This chute is near the Mariana Islands in the Western Pacific ocean. This deepest depression on Earth were formed as a result of the fact that the clash between two tectonic plates. A deep trough has a length of approximately 2550 km and a width equal to 69 km At the depth of trench is not less than 11000 m of – the exact number of researchers can’t install that due to the large difference of temperatures in different layers, a lot of pressure and impenetrable darkness of the hollow.
The deepest point of the Mariana trench is considered the Chellenger, was named for the eponymous research vessel, which fell to the bottom. You can even compare the height of the highest mountain Everest with the depth of the depression – Everest stretches up almost 8900 miles, and this means that the mountain is completely under the water in this gutter, and the top will still be covered with not less than two kilometers of water.
The study of man
For the first time, the Mariana trench was investigated in a human in 1960. It was in this period was created by an underwater technique which would be able to lower the researchers at the largest depth to obtain the desired information. This technique has become a bathyscaphe called the Trieste, with which the bottom fell out of Switzerland oceanographer Jacques Piccard and don Walsh soldier.
The surprise of the researchers, there was no limit, because at a depth of 10911 metres, which was then fixed, they found signs of life. It seemed a little strange to scientists, but it is still there. The trench is so deep that there is no penetrating rays of the sun, but because many residents of the basin who represent a flat fish and some other organisms that do not have eyes.
The next dive took place in 1995 – at the bottom of the Mariinsky basin went down already Japanese researchers. And in 2009, the bottom down special apparatus Nereus, which made some pictures and collected soil samples for research.
But the lowest point of the deepest depression on the Earth has come to Director James Cameron, who made such a deep journey in 2012. He carefully prepared for the expedition, hoping to collect excellent material. He sank to the bottom in the bathyscaphe, and gathered so much information that subsequently he was able to make a film about the deepest trench on Earth. At the last measurement of the depth of the Mariana trench was the result in 11035 meters. But no matter how much scientists investigated the Mariana trench, there is still a lot of questions and a variety of puzzles that you really want to solve.
Interesting facts about Mariana trench
The deeper you go underwater, the colder it is. But from underwater the surface of the deep, at a distance of 1600 meters, the water temperature already up to 450 degrees, due to the presence of hydrothermal vents. This hot water has many minerals that can support life at these depths. However, boiling of water, despite the high temperature, does not occur (as it should be), and the reason –too high water pressure, the value of which exceeds the level of water pressure on the surface in 155 times.
Not less striking was the discovery by researchers incredible size of amoebas (called xenophyophores them) that have a unique gift – they survive under the impact of a variety of toxic substances and heavy metals. These single-celled creatures must have purchased their sizes due to the environment, but how they manage not to feel the impact of harmful substances that can kill any living creature on Earth, is unclear.
Near hydrothermal vents in the deepest trench on Earth, scientists found clams, which like should not be here. How they manage to live at high pressure is also unclear. In addition, there are sources emit into the environment of hydrogen sulfide, which is deadly poisonous to mollusks. But that they safely survive (converted sulfur compounds in a safe protein) and continue their lives in the deeper layers of the Pacific ocean.
The bottom land is covered with a layer of slippery mud. That is, there is not present sand, which is often at the bottom of reservoirs, and the bottom paved with crushed seashells and the remains of the sunken plankton. Because water affects all this enormous pressure, all the remnants just turn into a slimy nasty mud color.
Scientists were able even to detect the depth of the depression of the liquid carbon dioxide in the deep strata of the water it is considered a rarity. But perhaps due to its thermal springs, which is called «white smokers» could receive life in the depths of the gutter.
Another surprising discovery was the discovery in 2011 in Mariana trench four stone bridges, the length of which is equal to 69 km
Most likely, their formation occurred at the junction of tectonic plates – the Philippine and Pacific. One of the identified bridges, which is found first is very high – it’s highest mark reaches 2500 m. Scientists are still struggling to determine precisely the causes of these bridges, but it still remains a mystery, like much in the history of the emergence of the Mariana trench.