The deepest ocean in the world
Today on our planet there are 5 oceans, each of which has its own characteristics, sizes and peculiar forms of life. The largest is the Pacific ocean, which in addition, also the deepest ocean in the world.
What size of the Pacific ocean?
It covers an area equal to the area 178600000 km2. The volume of ocean water are 710000000 km3. Looking at the map, you will see that the ocean extends from the Arctic to the southern ocean. Approximately forty-six percent of all surface water on our planet falls on the ocean where the average depth is approximately equal to 4000 B. the deepest point in the ocean is about 11000 m. This place in the Pacific ocean is the Mariana trench, which represents the deepest part of the oceans.
How scientists have determined the greatest ocean depth?
The deepest place in the ocean, scientists were able to identify, using special devices – sounders. And the device operates as follows. The sounder is located on the research vessel, sending it to the bottom of a special signal. Sent a sound wave, reaching the bottom of the ocean is reflected in the return is registered by the echo sounder. Thus, measures the time elapsed an audible signal on the achievement of the ocean floor and back to the device. The resulting time is divided in half, and then calculates the distance depending on the speed of sound in water.
Today, with the help of such devices, scientists have obtained information not only on the maximum depth and the average ocean depth. Based on their findings, the scientists were able to accurately say that the deepest of all is the Pacific ocean.
Features the deepest ocean
The ocean surrounded on all sides by 5 continents. In addition, he is the deepest, it is still the largest and the warmest. The relief of the bottom is quite complicated. At the equator the ocean is divided into 2 parts – North and South. Besides the ocean is the most island – in local places it is possible to count about ten thousand Islands.
In the West Pacific ocean is a trench that has a Crescent shape. Mariana trench, also called Marianas trench. Its length is equal to 2550 km and a width of 69 km Inland of the trench is about 11000 m.
Despite the wide popularity of this place, scientists have too little information about its features. However, there are some facts that are absolute. Here are some of them:
1)Hot water. A lot of people will say that the deeper down in the water, the colder it will be. But in this basin at a depth of 1600 m water temperature up to 450 degrees. And everything can be explained by the presence of hydrothermal vents, existing in this place. The water here is very rich in mineral components, allowing to provide life. But the water is not boiling, as the pressure of her more superficial in 155 times.
2)the Presence of molluscs. It would seem that high water pressure does not give any chance to stay on the bottom of the trench. But in 2012. scientists found clams, which even adapted to the release of hydrogen sulfide from hot springs, turning it into essential to life protein.
3)Slime on the bottom. Again, because of the high water pressure all falls on the bottom turns into the slime that covered the bottom of the chute.
4)Appearance of liquid sulfur. When lowered into the trench you can observe the daikoku volcano that is the source of the formation of the lake with pure sulfur. Such sulfur, in addition to these places is only on Jupiter.
5)the Presence of toxic amoebas to enormous size. The researchers were able to detect at the bottom of the chute 10-centimeter amoebas. Scientists suggest that this large amoeba has reached the environment and the lack of sun light. Amoeba also have excellent resistance to many chemicals.
The study of the deepest point of the Pacific ocean
The Mariana trench was discovered in 1875. Since it is the deepest in the ocean, the place decided to visit only three people. The most recent of these brave souls was film Director John.Cameron. He boarded the bathyscaphe to the bottom of the chute in 2012. The Director carefully watched everything that surrounds it, and what is going on. Being at the lowest point of the depression, Mr Cameron said that he was here alone. He didn’t see any scary monsters, but the bottom seemed so empty and lonely.