The deepest lake on earth
In the largest country in the world is the deepest lake, his name — Baikal. This lake is dedicated to not a single volume of book production, about the lake legends. Annually to admire the beauty of lake Baikal tourists not overlook the lake, the researchers, do not forget about a national heritage policy. These places are routinely collected from the expedition, the end of interesting discoveries.
The Size Of Lake Baikal
To pass through the bottom of the deepest lake in the world, you have to descend to a depth of 1642 meters is the highest lowest point of lake Baikal. The averaged quantity is 744 meters. Walk to Baikal will not pass, the narrowest place of the lake is 24 km and the widest is 79 km, while the total length of the coast – 2 thousand 100 meters.
If you fold the two countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands, it is possible to obtain area equal to the area of lake Baikal.
The pond is as if immersed in the embrace of mountain ranges. Moreover, if the Western part of the coast is literally cluttered with a fence of rocks, the relief of the Eastern is much softened.
The volume of water
No other lake contains so much fresh water. You just think about these figures – 615 23 thousand km3 is the fifth part of all world reserves.
Baykal did concede that the Caspian sea reserves of water. If you take water from the five Great lakes – Upper, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario, and drained it in one huge tub, we still do not get the Baikal. It’s so succinct!
The lake is surprisingly clean water 40 cm water surface allows us to consider the contents of the bottom.
The origin of the lake
The deepest lake in the world keeps the secret of his origin – scientists still don’t know neither how old he is, nor where it was formed. A rough estimate of the age of Baikal is about thirty million years. And even in this it is unique! Typically, the duration of life of the glacial lakes no more than 15 thousand years, they are killed by silty sediments.
But not everyone agrees with the vast age of the lake Baikal, doctor of geological-mineralogical Sciences Alexander Tatarinov bet with his colleagues. According to his calculations, the lake is not more than 150 thousand years.
Flora and fauna
Surprisingly, still continue to discover new species of living organisms inhabiting the deepest lake in the world. At the moment we know about two thousand six hundred types of animals, and just over two thousand plants. Probably it is not more than 80% of the total world flora and fauna of lake Baikal.
Baikal is inhabited fully – and at the surface and depths. Moreover, nearly half of all living pond creatures not found anywhere else. Most of the animals, and slightly less than half of the plants are endemic. The lake became home to hundreds of species of birds, 58 species of fish.
Here lives a unique animal – the Baikal seal. This is a typical inhabitant of the seas, most likely in the ice age , tributary to the Arctic ocean, and since then it has settled. At the moment the lake has several tens of thousands of seals.
Annually, in the winter, lake Baikal covers the ice cover thickness up to five feet. The uniqueness of the Baikal ice is that, first, it is remarkably transparent, and secondly, on the surface there sokui – hills of ice. These hollow cones can reach six feet in height.
Another mystery over which scientists are fighting minds on the ice for the deepest seroresponse circle – they can be clearly seen on satellite images. Every year they appear in a new place, what is the reason, scientists have yet to figure out.
Legends and myths
The locals respect the lake: they believe that Baikal is a living being, which must be handled with extreme caution, trouble to those who piss off the powerful healer.
According to one legend, the father of Baikal water flowed 336 sons of the rivers, the Angara, the only daughter. Thus, they replenish his water. And so it was as long as in the heart of the daughter has not settled a light feeling. And turned over the tide of the river, was the Hangar to give the water of the father to his beloved Yenisei. An angry father of curses thrown into the Hangar, a piece of rock. Ever since the beginning of Angara river is a Shaman stone.
And people still believe – if to anger the priest of lake Baikal, he will tear the place a Shamanic stone, rain down the water and flood everything around. Currently, the Angara dam was built, so we can see just the tip of the Shaman-stone.