The deepest borehole in the world in the USSR
In the Murmansk region, near ten kilometers to the town of Zapolyarny is the deepest borehole in the world in the USSR. It goes into the ground twelve miles two hundred sixty-two meters. It is not intended for oil production or exploration, has drilled a deep hole with the purpose of the study of the lithosphere. Why is it dug on the territory of the Baltic shield? Because in this place the border of Mohorovich as close as possible to the surface of the Earth.
No one is interested to study studied the layers of sedimentary rocks have been thoroughly studied during oil production. It’s much more interesting to study volcanic rocks, whose age is estimated at about three billion years. Note, the Earth turned a little more than four billion years.
In the last century on the world wide web has spread the legend of «the road to hell.» Rumor has it that at a depth of twelve miles, heard the cries and groans of their recorded instrument scientists. In the «yellow press» had a few publications on the theme «voice from hell». Since the deepest borehole in the world began to call «road to hell».
The noise of hell
When drilling exceeds 12 miles, the Soviet Union collapsed. When it was possible to drill to a depth of 14.5 km – found emptiness. For the sake of interest drillers dropped into the uncharted depths of recording and other equipment, able to withstand temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celsius, and that temperature was detected in the void, from which supposedly came the sound of human screams. So the newspaper wrote, in fact, the maximum depth of the mine just above 12 thousand meters, and the maximum temperature recorded at a depth of 220 degrees Celsius.
Added fuel to the fire explosion that occurred at the end of the 20th century in the depths of the mine. With the filing of journalists, who arrived from Finland, the world got the news about the escaped demon that lived in the depths of the planet. Scientists now are not sure what happened there. But we know that before the explosion equipment was recorded suspicious rumble.
When we first started drilling, get the drill dreamed of every Soviet citizen, but from several dozen candidates drew the lucky ticket one, maximum two. The lucky ones were given a separate apartment and a decent salary, equal to three professorial salaries. Perseverance Soviet drillers can only envy, Oh how pedantic and insistent the Germans, but the deepest borehole or twice shorter.
Travel deep into the Earth
Humanity knows more about distant galaxies than about what was going on under his feet. The deepest borehole in the world in the Soviet Union is a telescope that opens to humanity the mystery of the depths of our planet.
At the beginning of last century, scientists believed that the Earth consists of three parts. It is known to all, the crust, mantle, core. But who could tell with reliable precision, where the end of one layer and into another? Nobody, as nobody knew why, in fact these layers are composed.
Travel deep into the Earth were made by scientists from different countries – where not only digging, but few of the wells deepened to 3 km and more. In this mystical depth usually began the strangest things was in super hot areas, the Boers looked like they cut a giant underground animal. Deeper 3 thousand meters managed to drill five wells – four of them are works of Soviet drillers. And only the Kola superdeep managed to drill below 7 thousand feet.
How does she look?
After reading the article, you probably have drawn an image of mine, deep goes down. However, things are a little different. The Kola superdeep is a thin, not more than 20 centimeters in diameter, hole. In the context it looks like a thin needle penetrates the planet. Bur, on which are attached various sensors, which raise and lower within a few days. To speed up the process, it is impossible – has considerable strength wire rope could not withstand the load.
What is happening at depth, no one knows. All the sounds are transferred to the surface with a delay of a minute. It would be wrong to assert that the Kola superdeep has gone deeper without a hitch. During the work had an accident – got melted drill, although in order for it to melt, it is necessary that the temperature was as the Sun. Once the drill has broken – there was a feeling that someone very strong pulled him from the depths. And despite the fact that after breakage of the drill string were to remain pieces of rope, and they haven’t managed to find.
Not mysterious screams and mysterious events caused the stoppage of work – the reason for the lack of funding. Those Finance that allocates UNESCO, were barely sufficient to maintain the drilling station in working condition.
At the present time, remained without state support, the station began to collapse. To restore it you need a fairly significant amount.
Well demonstrated how people were wrong – the Earth does not like a layer cake. If the first four kilometres went as expected, then it started interesting… If scientists assumed that high temperatures will begin no earlier than 15 kilometers, in fact they were expecting 70-degree surprise at the level of 5 thousand meters, a few kilometers was 50 degrees hotter at the depth of 12 thousand meters were roasted at 220 degrees. No one could not assume what’s inside is so hot.
School textbooks can anyone remember that at first there are young rocks, granites then, in the Wake of the basalts, then the mantle and core. In fact it turned out that the granite extends for several kilometers farther than expected, but the basalts and not found.
Deep told the world – life arose much earlier than thought before. Scientists wrong for several hundred thousand years. Where it was considered that no organics found some fossilized microorganisms. When were the sedimentary rocks, found methane – this discovery undermined the concept of biological origins of oil or gas.
The deepest borehole in the world in the Soviet Union opened the world’s pantry of various minerals. Below is 9.5 km away olivine layer, which contains the gold.