The biggest desert in the world
The desert is a wonderful world, which along with harsh climatic conditions, poor flora and fauna reigns the Majesty and mystique. These deserted spaces, which number more than 30 and occupies about 16% of the surface of the globe. There are many types of deserts: they can be sand, clay, shale and others. But the biggest desert in the world is covered with solid thick ice.
The biggest desert on Earth
A huge area is the Antarctic desert, which is the largest on the planet. It covers an area of 13 829 430 sq km vast expanse covered with a thick layer of ice. The Antarctic is a polar desert and is located on the southern continent of the planet. It is not only the largest but also the most severe. Climatic conditions of this region share the following characteristics:
- low humidity;
- the lowest temperature on the planet;
- strong constant winds;
- the highest intensity of solar radiation.
Due to the extremely harsh conditions the flora and fauna of the Antarctic desert is very poor. On its surroundings, close to the coast, there are mosses and lichens, among which the mites live and insects. The largest inhabitants of the wilderness of the Antarctic there are penguins, of which there are several types.
The largest sand desert located in the subtropical band, is Sugar. Its endless spaces occupy about 9 million square km, and extends almost the entire Northern part of the African continent. Sugar is considered the hottest desert on the planet. In summer the temperature here can reach up to +58 °C, the surface warms up to +75°C. in Winter, daytime temperature drops to +13°C, and at night can reach -18°C. Precipitation on the territory of the Sahara fall unevenly: in the Northern areas where severe thunderstorms occur, which result in floods, and the rain is falling over the years. In this part of the desert surface is covered with sand, on which there is no vegetation.
In the Sahara meet drought-resistant grass, shrubs and trees. They grow in areas where there is minimal supply of water. Of animals there are more than 4 thousand different species of invertebrates, about 60 species of mammals. In the desert, find shelter more than 30 thousand species of birds, most of which are migratory.
A huge area of the earth’s surface is one of the polar desert and Arctic. Its area is 2.6 million square km. It is located in the Northern part of the globe. Its surface is covered with ice, gravel and large boulders. Almost year round here keep freezing temperatures, and only in the middle of summer the air can warm up to +3°C. In winter, here comes the polar night, which is in the heart of the desert last 6 months. In the Arctic wilderness are often very dense fogs and strong winds blow. The sky often covered with clouds and often precipitation. From the vegetation found only mosses and lichens. In coastal areas inhabited by such representatives of fauna, such as polar bears, lemmings and Arctic foxes.
A large area is desert located on the Arabian Peninsula. Its area reaches 2, 33 million square meters. because of the hot climate here is a little vegetation and a very poor fauna. Of plants found tolerate drought grass, shrubs and trees. Most large animals live in the Arabian desert there are gazelles. Studies have shown that the earlier the territory occupied by the Arabian desert, forests grew, and there were a lot of ponds.
Between the Altai mountains and Tien Shan in Asia extend to the vast expanses of the Gobi desert, an area which is equal to 1.3 million sq. km. Climatic conditions in the desert are extremely harsh, due to the location in the continental zone. In winter the temperature can drop to -50°C and in summer warms up to +57°C. through such a huge range of temperatures in the desert meets a little plant. The fauna is also diverse. Here you can find small rodents, snakes, antelopes and camels.
The Syrian desert
About 1 million square kilometers of territory in the Middle East is the Syrian desert. It is a harsh region with very poor vegetation, which is restricted to drought resistant grasses and shrubs. Here you can meet animals from camels, antelopes, and lizards. In the steppe parts of the vegetation more varied, which allows local residents to deal with cattle.
A large area in the southern part of the African Peninsula is desert Kalahari 900 sq km during the year, there is a hot climate. The air temperature in the summer months remains within +29°C, and in winter descends to +12°C. In the Kalahari in summer precipitation, making it meet drought-resistant plants. In the desert many species of animals, ranging from giraffes and ending with the insects.
The Patagonian desert
Along the coast of the South American continent stretches the Patagonian desert, the area of which is equal to 673 thousand sq. km. Its surface is covered with sand and gravel. Here is a dry cold climate, due to the Falkland Islands over the Atlantic ocean. The average temperature is between +5°C to +13,4°C; In some areas of the desert with high humidity grows many species is resistant to extremes of temperature herbs, shrubs and trees. The fauna of the Patagonian desert is quite diverse.
A huge area of the Australian continent is the great Victoria desert, with an area equal to 647 thousand sq. km. Due to the warm climate, the vast desert you can find many types of drought-resistant vegetation. The fauna of Victoria is very diverse. On the territory of the desert there are tribes of aborigines.
In the Western part of the North American continent is desert, called the Great Pool. Its area is 492 sq. km. the surface of the desert sand and rock formations. There are found different, resistant to drought vegetation and many species of animals.