Solid fuel boilers: types and characteristics of choice
Modern solid fuel boiler is an excellent alternative to the traditional water systems and gas heating. It is ideal for people who do not have the opportunity to buy a unit that runs on LPG or natural gas. The most relevant such boiler for the private sector, where in most cases there is no connection to a centralized gas supply system.
Varieties of solid fuel boilers
Based on the variety of fuel used such boilers are divided into:
- Pyrolysis. They are equipped with two combustion chambers. One of them is the primary combustion is artificially created lack of oxygen, which is why there is the synthesis and subsequent pyrolysis of the gas. In another cell completely burns the gas synthesized in the first. Pyrolysis solid fuel boilers run on normal wood. It is best to use solid wood. Burning wood one tab lasts within 6-10 hours, and minimum efficiency of pyrolysis boilers is 90%.
- Pellet. The fuel for them is pelletized or extruded wood. Pellet boilers with the help of a screw able to supply fuel for combustion. The ignition is realized automatically, and the burning time is determined mainly by the volume of the hopper. There are models, equipped with special storage for return fuel pneumatically. Refuel pellet boilers only once during the season – all subsequent procedures they are carried out fully automatically. The only drawback is the limitation in the types of fuel used. Pellet boilers can be fuelled only by the above types of wood fuel.
- Long burning. These units are mainly working on firewood and sawdust, but there are also samples of peat and coal. Fuel boilers long burning burns only 12 to 48 hours – this effect is ensured by the special design of the combustion chamber. Burning them from the top down, causing the wood smolders and does not burn in the literal sense. The fuel supply in such units is about 50 pounds. For long burning boiler, you can use any type of fuel, the optimal choice of which depends on the model of the unit.
Based on the variety of material used for the production of the heat exchanger, there are two types of solid fuel boilers:
- Cast iron. These units work exclusively on coal and firewood. This is a special non-volatile devices with a very comfortable work cycle. The only drawback is increased sensitivity to temperature changes, therefore, before wet cleaning in the room where is placed a cast-iron boiler, you should wait until it is completely cool.
- Steel. They represent the all-welded design that is made or with the so-called boiler or a heat resistant steel. Steel boilers have good impact resistance, resistance to sharp temperature fluctuations and undemanding in maintenance. In addition, they are much cheaper than their iron counterparts.
How to choose a solid fuel boiler?
The choice of this unit it is recommended to trust a specialist. If there is a confidence, when buying you should consider the following criteria:
- Power. The indicator of this parameter directly depends on level of insulation and the area of the room in which you plan to place the boiler, the presence of additional heating devices. The choice of an optimal unit of power should be entrusted to a specialist because it can more accurately carry out all necessary calculations.
- Efficiency. The boiler must consume a minimum of fuel and give maximum heat.
- Type of fuel used. Should choose the most comfortable» kind of fuel that can be regularly purchased and thus renew the reserves.
- Dimensions. Solid fuel boiler needs to be sized optimally matching the dimensions of the room where you plan to place.
- The aesthetic appeal. About this option also is not necessary – any equipment, including solid fuel boilers, should look well in the room.