Everything you need to know about inoculations against tick-borne encephalitis
Not all people are afraid to spend their free time outdoors in the spring and summer with a possible risk of finding ticks. It happens that the man never once encountered in my entire life with these creatures. Often, however, it happens and Vice versa – some people like a magnet to attract mosquitoes, ticks and other nasty creatures of woods and fields. And if a mosquito brings trouble, only sucking the blood, the mite can enter the human body is very life-threatening tick-borne encephalitis virus.
This infectious viral disease causes serious damage not only peripheral but also Central nervous system. Potentially any tick from the existing 30 000 species can be a carrier of arbovirus. Tick-borne encephalitis people can be infected not only through tick bites but also through home raw milk from the animal, attacked by contagious mites, and other domesticated animals.
The bite of a tick cure is not difficult, it is only important to know the basic principles of treatment of such wounds, which are described in detail here. Unfortunately, the same can not say about the viral disease tick-borne encephalitis.
Symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis
The first symptoms are felt within 1-2 weeks after the tick bite, and they can easily be confused with the common cold. Within weeks an infected person to suffer from headaches, fever, aching joints and muscle pain. Two-thirds of patients then recover, however another third were not so lucky – their statistics is relentless strikes a severe form of encephalitis, which is accompanied by intolerable pains in the head, in the neck muscles, lethargic reactions, extreme fever and vomits. This situation if not promptly seeking medical care could end very badly – paralysis or death.
The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in the world is highest in Slovenia, the Baltic countries and in Russia. In our country the overall index of morbidity increased significantly when it comes to endemic areas in the North and North-West, in the countryside. On this basis carried out a planned immunization, which is designed to protect people during periods of highest risk, the incidence in may-June and August-September. Specialists recommend to put vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis not only the people of Russia, but also wishing to travel to the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and also in Japan.
The scheme of introduction of the vaccine
In Russia the greatest distribution was received vaccines of domestic production «Vaccine tick-borne encephalitis» and «Tick-e-VAC» that contains inactivated virus. As a result of vaccination, the body begins to produce antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus.
Two-component scheme of administration of the vaccine, provides that the first vaccination is done intramuscularly for 1-3 months before the season of increased risk of morbidity and the second in 1-7 months after the first vaccination. The second vaccine is preferably administered a month before the season or the intended visit. Revaccination is carried out through the year, and then every five years.
Ternary diagram of the introduction of the vaccine imply that «zero» is the date of the first dose. Then after 1-3 months entered a second dose, and after 5-12 months after the second you enter the final dose of the vaccine.
Children aged 3-15 years for vaccinations take dose half less than adults. The vaccine can be entered together with other vaccines provided that they are introducing in different places by different syringes. After a tick bite vaccination loses its effectiveness, and protection for the body is the introduction of an immunoglobulin. The cost of one vaccination depending on the vaccine manufacturer ranges from 400 to 1500 rubles, but the price really has a small effect on the degree of its effectiveness.
Indications and contraindications to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis
First vaccinations should be done by the people who are planning to travel to endemic regions in spring and summer. This is especially true of areas with forest landscape and humid climate. Vaccination also won’t prevent fans of hunting and fishing, and also have employees logging, conservation sector, farmers and the military in the field. Reliable protection against all strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus provides complete immunization, completion of which is more than a month before departure to the region.
Contraindication for the administration of the dose of vaccine is anaphylactic reaction after administration of a previous dose or component. Also, do not inoculate the vaccine to persons with Allergy to Protamine, and gentamicin, neomycin and formaldehyde, as well as on foods such as chicken and eggs. Vaccination is prohibited in the period of acute inflammatory diseases and in the age of 1 year.
Body temperature in some cases after the administration of doses of the vaccine increases. This symptom may develop approximately 12 hours and within 1-2 days spontaneously. It is worth noting that pregnancy and breastfeeding is not a contraindication to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis.
What are the side effects gives vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis
Side effects after vaccination may experience people with a latex Allergy and a food product such as eggs as well as persons with neurological disorders or autoimmune diseases.
Not every vaccinated person is experiencing complications after vaccination, but some people begin to experience headaches and soreness at the injection site, diarrhea, nausea, cramps and pain in the joints and muscles, increased heart rate, rash and itching on the skin and swollen lymph nodes. Small children after vaccination can be strongly excited, bad to eat and sleep, to fall into fever. The most safe are the vaccines of a new generation.