Earth’s highest peak
The rapid development of science led to the emergence of many disputed questions, the answers to which seemed obvious. It concerns and to determine which is the highest peak of the Earth. Why scientists are not able to come to a consensus? The problem lies in the peculiarities of calculations.
Where is the beginning?
Previously did not have long to ponder over the question, which of the vertices of the Land is Supreme. The measurements of the specialists took into account only the height of a mountain above sea level. Progressive advances in science have allowed scientists to carry out new calculations that led to the emergence of other higher peaks. Today, there are three methods that define the highest points of the planet:
- in the calculation we take the height of the mountains above sea level;
- consider the height of the peak, starting from the foot and ending in a peak;
- determine the height from the center of the Earth to the top of the top.
The leadership belongs to Everest?
Almost everyone knows that the highest on the planet is mount Everest. Indeed, this peak has the highest altitude above sea level. Install it succeeded Indian mathematics Radhanath Sikdar in 1852. The first measurements are made in 1856, allowed us to determine the height of the mountain, which was to 8839 meters.
Measurement of Chomolungma was conducted many times. Most accurate calculations have been done in 2010, the Chinese surveyors. On the basis of the data received the official height of the mountain was 8,848 meters. In 2015, the height of Chomolungma declined by about 2, 54 cm that was caused by the earthquake.
Notable features of Chomolungma
Everest is part of Himalaya mountains. It was formed about 60 million years ago the collision of the Indian and Asian tectonic plates. Opened the tallest mountain on the planet in 1841, the Indian George Everest, whose name became the official name of this peak.
The mountain is located on the territories of Nepal and China. It has the shape of a pyramid with very steep slopes. On the top of Everest often strong winds blow, which speed reaches 200 km/h. Daytime temperatures can reach -35°C. the Night temperature reaches -60 °C.
Despite the harsh climate and the extreme difficulty of the climbing, mount Everest attracts many climbers. For the first time the peak was conquered by the new Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Tenzing Norgay in 1953. Today, thousands of climbers have had the experience of climbing the highest mountain on the planet.
Mauna Kea beats records
If you take into account the height of the whole top, not just the part that rises above sea level, the highest mountain of Earth is Mauna Kea. The height of this shield volcano is 10203 meters. A significant part of the top of tall 5998 m. it is located under the water column of the Pacific ocean, the Loftiness of the mountain above the water is only 4205 m.
The volcano is about 1 million years. Mauna Kea arose as a result of the activity of the hot spot. The last eruption occurred over 4,500 years ago. Today it is a inactive volcano. The top of Mauna Key that is under a layer of snow, attracts lovers of skiing and snowboarding. The gentle slopes of the mountains often win hikers exploring the local sights.
Wonderful house for observatories
Mauna Kea is located near the equator, making it an ideal place to conduct astronomical observations. Thanks to the low humidity and clear sky at the top of the mountains, excellent conditions for research space. There are installed more than 10 telescopes and equipped with the world’s largest astronomical Observatory. The world’s largest telescope is also mounted on the top of the volcano.
Center Mauna Kei equipped with web cameras. This allows viewers online to watch work the largest Observatory in the world.
The return of the lost positions Chimborazo
In February 2016, the French scientists, climbed mount Chimborazo, it was proved that the peak vertices are the most distant from the center of the Earth. For research specialists were involved in satellite navigation system. The results of the calculations, the inactive volcano Chimborazo is the highest peak of the planet, if you focus on the distance from the center of the planet.
It is worth noting that until 1841, Chimborazo was considered the highest mountain of the Earth. But after the discovery of Everest, the volcano has lost the leadership, which has now returned to him. If you take into account the height of the mountain from the center point of the planet Everest failed to occupy a place in the top twenty of the highest peaks.
Interesting about Chimborazo
Inactive volcano Chimborazo is part of the Ecuadorian Andes. Its last eruption dates back to 500 years BC. Glaciers mountains are the source of freshwater for surrounding areas. Due to global warming and the continuation of volcanic activity, the ice layer continuously decreases.
The mountain slopes are not very steep, which allows you to climb to the top in less than 3 days. To conquer the mountain, it is recommended at night because during the day under the sunlight the snow is getting soft that is threatened by avalanches and rockfalls.