The road: why they are needed and how to build them
All the roads of Russia meet in closed Federal network. Its density in different districts is different and depends on location. For example, the far Eastern Federal district commensurate density less than the density of the European part of Russia.
The types of roads
There are four main categories, which are divided roads: Federal roads, local and regional values, as well as private. They all differ in their functionality and facilities.
All roads, specifically information about them contained in the Unified state register of the Russian Federation. This is done in order to clearly understand what the road belongs to whom, and who is responsible for her condition.
In addition to the above, there are toll roads. Those right-of-way which need to pay. However, any paid way there is a free alternative.
Every kind of road provides a link between the regions and perform a communicative function. For the successful implementation of objectives and long life of the road surface it is very important that already during the construction was laid on quality based on. This will allow, if necessary, quickly and without difficulty of movement to carry out repairs.
According to statistics, about 50% of Russians believe that the state of the roads leaves much to be desired, and half of such interest at first sees the reason in the wrong job builders road. As roads have a strong influence on the economic development of the country, their construction has always been considered a priority for the state.
What they are building?
Road building of the special «garment», which includes: subgrade, base, curb, coating of the road and regulation of the traffic. Each of these elements exists to implement a complete and high-quality operation of roads. For example, the basis allows to reduce the total volume of loads and disperse them throughout the extent of the subgrade.
Coating for the roadway usually are:
- the Portland cement concrete,
- contaminated gravel or soil,
- crushed stone with bitumen impregnation.
However, the coating can be any and different from their own characteristics, but the most important for the functioning of the road is proper drainage and compaction of the lower layers. Sealing is achieved by means of steel rollers equipped with teeth, the movement of which ensures the tractor.
The structure of the roads and their installation.
Most «light» are dirt roads, smoothing itself the natural soil. Their only downside is a low possibility of heavy traffic.
One of the most durable are gravel roads, the structure of which is composed mainly of gravel. It is also impregnated with bitumen.
The structure of the asphalt coating includes sand, stone flour and asphalt. The mixture is prepared at high temperature, which is equal to 175 degrees, and the layer stacking does not exceed 7 inches. The reason for this coating serves several layers of crushed rock, compacted by a roller. Such a mixture is called macadam. Its advantage is that when watering the water, it helps to achieve a specific level of strength of the road. The details of this process can be found on specialized sites of the companies. who build the road.
But besides the above aspects, the main thing in any construction is the design stage. Only after it begins the process of geological research, which determined the area in which the work will be conducted.
In addition, an important part of the work is considered the final environmental activities, the list of which includes the installation of special screens along the road that are designed to protect adjacent areas from noise. Also this kind of works is the replacement of Windows in residential houses located near the road.
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