The Foundation and its classification
There is a stereotype that for the construction of simple, standard building it is necessary to build a standard Foundation. But here’s the problem, there is no standard foundations. For each structure requires its own type of Foundation. Therefore, it is necessary to understand what are the foundations.
As the statistics shows the construction of the house, approximately 15 – 25 % of funds go to the Foundation. But, if the technology of its construction was something wrong, the mess can take about 50 – 60 %, and in some cases more if significant damage to the building.
Classification of foundations
1. Strip Foundation
This type of Foundation is a frame of reinforced concrete constructions, which is partially submerged in the ground, and partial is on the outside, so-called base. This Foundation is suitable for wooden, frame, or other type of houses. In this type of Foundation importantly, during changes in weather conditions, i.e. freezing and thawing of the soil, the house so to speak «floating». You want the house and the Foundation was moving at the same time, because if the house and the Foundation will «float» together, it can cause serious distortions in the window frames and door frames, to see the likelihood that they will not close. Can also deform the roof of the house, and eventually it can just flow.
2. Low-depth tape
First you need to markup the reinforcement pegs and nylon yarn. Then around the perimeter of the stretched filament dropped the trench depth of 70 cm and is lined with down and thoroughly compacted sand cushion, which should take approximately 20 cm.
Then is constructed of wooden planking, which is firmly bound with wire. Set reinforcement cage. The framework consists of valves 12 and 10 mm. They are used for the bearings of the future and creating a Foundation. When the frame is ready, the trench and the mold is filled with concrete. After 20 days, the formwork can be dismantled. After this period of time the concrete cures and becomes suitable for further construction of the walls.
3. Combined piled-raft Foundation
This type of Foundation is to create a Seki with concrete piles, elektropostavka/gbi-lep/ that be in the tape at a certain distance from each other and are the supporting Foundation for future walls. This type is recommended in areas where there is a significant slope or not depends on the strength of the soil, is the large number of groundwater. For wooden houses are usually used for solid concrete piles which are recessed 1.5 m into the ground. The procedure of creating such a Foundation is the following. Is the markup, dug a trench to a depth of 20 cm in the trench at a certain distance drilled hole piles. Installed wooden decking, poured sand cushion in 50 – 100 cm then installed reinforcement cage is inserted and piles, and all poured concrete. After 20-25 days the concrete fully hardens.
4. Pile-screw Foundation
Installation of this type of Foundation is two or three days. Solid, excavation and other work in this case, it is not needed. Minus of this type in its service life, which depends on the period, rusting metal. Here, the principle of torsion in the ground below the level of soil freezing piles.
5. Slab Foundation (monolithic slab)
Mostly this type is used on those places where the bearing capacity of soils is low, and a high concentration in this plot groundwaters.