The American avant-garde sculptor Isamu Noguchi
American sculptor avant-garde Isamu Noguchi (Noguchi, Isamu) (1904-1988), American designer, representative of the avant-garde Orientalism, one of the leaders of monumental and decorative sculpture of the 20th century.
Creativity of the sculptor, architect and designer Isamu Noguchi, on the one hand, ultra-modern, like modern America, with other original and deeply human, like Japan.In the ranking of the British newspaper the Times is a ranking of the 200 best artists of the twentieth century – it takes place 192.
The American avant-garde sculptor Isamu Noguchi
Sculptor Isamu Noguchi was born in America, in Los Angeles, November 17, 1904 in a family of immigrants from Japan. His father (Japanese poet Yonejiro (Yone) Noguchi, returned to Tokyo) left the family and upbringing of the child has a mother (Leonie Gilmour, American writer, whose name Noguchi wore to graduation).
To have Isamu Noguchi, Leonie Gilmour (1873-1933) was an American teacher and author, who stayed in the 1906-1920 years in Japan. Gilmour met Japanese poet Yone Noguchi in new York, when he sought a tutor in the English language. Their son Isamu was born in November 1904 in Los Angeles, after Yone returned to Japan. In 1906 she and Isamu joined him in Tokyo, but the relationship soon came to an end. Leonie Gilmour and her son, however, remained in Japan where she earned a living by teaching English and wrote articles for magazines. She sent Isamu back to America for training in 1918, and returned to California in 1920 with his daughter, Alsou. In 1923 she moved to new York, restoring contact with Isamu and supporting himself by importing goods from Japan. Leonie Gilmour died of pneumonia in new York in 1933.
Father Isamu Noguchi, Yonejiro (Yone) Noguchi (1875-1947) was the first Japanese poet who created poetry in the English language. Yone Noguchi was born near Nagoya in 1875, and moved to the United States in 1893. He soon became known among poets imageshow San Francisco (Imagism – (eng . imagism image from the image), the modernist period in English and American poetry (1910-20-ies; That Is, Hume, E. pound, Amy Lowell, etc.). Accepted the philosophy of intuitionism; cultivated a clean image, complicated metaphor, rhythm game, free verse as a means of understanding «chaotic world.»), and his first book of poems was published in 1897, «Seen and Unseen or Monologues of a homeless snail.» Relationship with Leonie Gilmour has not developed and Isamu Noguchi saw his father infrequently and before moving to America, 1918. The only time Isamu, later, saw the father, was a seven-month visit to Japan in 1931. Father Isamu Noguchi, Yonejiro (Yone) Noguchi, in addition to his career as a poet, was Professor of English at the University of Keio in Tokyo. Yonejiro (Yone) Noguchi published a number of books on Japanese art. He died in Tokyo in July 1947. One of the first projects Isamu Noguchi, when visiting Japan in the 1950s was the design of the memorial monument and garden at the University of Keio in honor of his father.
Noguchi’s childhood spent in constant travelling around Japan (1906-1917), together with the mother, sometimes living with his father (1907-1910). Primary education Noguchi received in Japan. They did not stay long, and Noguchi are accustomed to a nomadic life. The mother saw her son’s obvious flair for creativity and that she advised him to engage in garden design.
The first steps in their craft, the future designer made, being apprenticed to a Japanese carpenter who built the house of the mother of Isamu Noguchi (1913).
Japanese master Noguchi instilled an interest and love for natural materials.
1916 September – Isamu, the Japanese school and sent to College of St. Joseph Yokohama.
1918 Isamu one moved to Indiana, where he met with Dr. Edward rumley (1882-1964) created a school in La Porte, Indiana. This school does Isamu. After Noguchi graduated from high school in La Porte, E. Ramli helped him in later life.
1922 Isamu finishes high school as Isamu Gilmour (he wore his mother’s surname). Edward rumley helped him to get a summer internship to the sculptor Gutsanu the Borglum in Connecticut, and provides the Foundation Isamu, so that he could go to pre-med classes at Columbia University.
After two months of working together, master Noguchi stated that he would never become a sculptor. However, the sentencing was premature, thanks to happy coincidence, not later, Noguchi was among the disciples of the Parisian sculptor Constantin Brancusi, with whom he was an assistant in 1927 and who, like the sculptor had a significant effect.
1924 Have moved to new York, and encourages Isamu to go to an evening sculpture class at art school. Leonardo da Vinci. Head of school Onorio Ruotolo (sculptor, teacher, critic, editor, poet, Illustrator and cartoonist (pen name:
Bayard (Bay horse)), he enjoys the works of Isamu and satisfied with his first exhibition, after 3 months of training. After that, Isamu decided to devote himself to sculpture and casts the University. It was at this time that he first begins to use her father’s name is Noguchi Gilmore. In the same year, with Dr. Edward rumley, he is building his first Studio and became a member of the National Union of Sculptors.
1925-26 Isamu Noguchi puts academic figural sculptures in the salons of the National Academy of Design and Pennsylvania Academy of the fine Arts. Creates a mask for the performance of Michio Ito for Yeats»s At the Hawk’s Well is his first work for the theater. During this period, he visits the exhibition of works of the sculptor Brancusi. Pomeshaet and other exhibitions of contemporary art, especially the gallery of Alfred Stieglitz’s.
Isamu Noguchi. «The mermaid». 1925.
April 1927 – arrived in Paris. Soon comes to Brancusi, and works as his assistant every morning for 6 months. Day studying in the Academie and Academie Grande Chaumi Collarosi. In this period experienced a considerable influence of Picasso and Miro and included in the society of artists, which includes Alexander Calder, Morris Kantor, and Stuart Davis. After retiring from Brancusi begins the first stone and wooden sculpture at his Studio in Montparnasse.
1928 Works in Paris, creating abstract sculptures and abstract paintings in gouache.
Due to the fact that a grant of the Guggenheim Fellowships (American grants, which is given annually since 1925, the memorial Foundation John Simon Guggenheim, given to those “who have demonstrated exceptional ability in education or exceptional creative ability in the arts), Isamu Noguchi returned to new York at the end of the year.
Photo: the Paris Studio Noguchi
1929 Equipped Studio on the top floor of Carnegie Hall. In April – is hosting an exhibition in the gallery of Eugene depends on the work of Aubin, where he exhibited his Paris abstractions. Met with Richard Buckminster fuller (American architect, designer, engineer and inventor who in Isamu a great influence and was friends with him until his death) and Martha Graham (dancer of contemporary dance). Takes a Studio on Madison Avenue and make a portrait sculpture, which he continues to do over the next decade.
1930 January-February – shows a portrait sculpture in new York, and sent with fuller in Cambridge and Chicago with a tour of the exhibition-lecture. April – returned to Paris. Traveling via Moscow to Beijing. Remains in Beijing for seven months, where he studied the technique of ink drawing with Chi Pai-shih, creating a series of figure paintings with a brush.
1931 March – arrives in Japan, where there is a heavy reunion with the father, carried out with the support of his uncle Totaro Takagi. Travels to Kyoto, where he sees the Zen gardens and ancient Haniwa sculpture. Meet clay works Jinmatsu Uno. September – exhibited ceramic sculpture in Tokyo. October – returns to new York. November – sculpture «Ruth Parks», acquires Museum of American art in new York.
1932 February – shows Beijing drawings with brush and Chinese ceramic sculpture. Makes the sculpture «Miss Expanding Universe», depicting the dancer Ruth page, and designs costumes for her. Work «Angna», acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in new York.
1933 January – publication of the first essay about Isamu Noguchi, as it is written. Levi.
1935 February – exposes social and political works, including Death (Lynched Figure). Created the first design for the ballet by Martha Graham. Leaves new York and moves to California. Sculpts sculptural portraits in Hollywood.
1936 Moved to Mexico. Working for eight months to create a «History of Mexico» (72-foot mural political height, in the Abelardo Rodriguez Market, Mexico City). Makes a series of designs for ballets by Martha Graham. The introduction of innovative design scenery created by Isamu Noguchi for her solo dance performance in 1935, called the collaboration with the sculptor that lasted for three decades. Isamu Noguchi designed the sets, almost twenty performances of Martha Graham.
1937 Isamu returned to new York. The first sign of a designer Noguchi, released commercially, was developed by him superduper idea for a baby monitor. The monitor is a structure that consists of abstract images of the head nurses, which was mounted speaker for parents, and ears with a built in microphone records the noises coming from the nursery.
1938 Design of the first Fontan – fountain Chassis, which was created for Ford Motor company and presented at new York world’s fair. October – creates a bas-relief stainless steel «news» home «associated press».
1941 Work «Capital», becoming a Museum of modern art in new York. Summer resides in California with Assilem?RCTs ((Arshile Gorky) is an American artist of Armenian origin, one of the founders of the «abstract expressionism») and friends, and on 7 December when the Japanese attack on pearl Harbor – she lives in Hollywood.
1942 March – sculptor moving to Washington in an attempt to mitigate the difficulties of Japanese-American relations. May voluntarily creates Colorado River Relocation Center, Poston, Arizona, to improve the relationship. Disappointed after six months, returned to new York.
In 1942, Isamu Noguchi decided to go volunteer at Indian reservation in Arizona. The aim of this action was an attempt to develop on an Indian reservation arts and crafts that could support the original inhabitants of America.
1943 is the first design cylindrical lamp on a tripod for the firm of Knolle, which will be manufactured in 1944. Mixed creates sculptures from various materials.
1944 Designs biomorphic coffee table and set the dining area, which will be manufactured by Herman Miller in 1947.
1945 Design scenery for «John brown» by Eric Hawkins.
September 1946 – the work of Isamu Noguchi, participate in the exhibition «14 Americans» at the Museum of Modern Art, new York. For the first time about the works widely writes Thomas. Hess. Razrabatyvaet design scenery for «Dark meadows» of Martha Graham.
1947 Creates the ceiling with lighting for an American construction company Stove (St. Louis, mo) and of Time-Life (NY). Company Furniture Herman Miller begins production designs Noguchi. Design scenery for two works of Martha Graham. Design scenery for Acrobat Stephen Eric Hawkins. Designs sets and costumes for the work of Merce Cunningham-John Cage The Seasons.
1948 Creates a lighted stairwell on the vessel Argentina (destroyed in 1959). July 21 – Arshile Gorky commits suicide after Noguchi and wifredo Lam (Cuban painter) going to new York from his home in Connecticut. Earlier, in 1946, a fire destroyed the Studio of Arshile Gorky and destroyed all of his paintings, written in connection with a very important for him a personal exhibition in the gallery Julian levy, along with his beloved library that put the Slides into a deep depression. In the same year, the Slides underwent a serious operation for cancer. In 1948, the Slides were in a car accident in which he broke his back, causing the hand with which he worked, was completely paralyzed. The severity of his suffering, he began to vent to his wife, and soon after this unfortunate accident of his wife (Agnes Macgruder) took the kids and left him. In the same 1948 Arshile Gorky hung himself in his paluasheva Studio.
1949 March – sculptor Noguchi holds an exhibition in new York at the Charles Egan gallery. May – tour to France, England, Spain, Italy, Greece, Egypt, India, Cambodia and Indonesia.
1950 may 2 – arrive in Japan, congratulations to the young artists and architects, including Kenzo Tange. Designing a memorial and garden to commemorate soemone at the University Keio (completed in 1952). August – new shows ceramics, furniture, model of the bell tower of the memorial of Hiroshima, and sculpture for the project, Keio University, Tokyo. September 4 – depart for new York. Nov – meets his future wife, actress Yoshiko (Shirley) Yamaguchi (a famous Japanese movie star, TV presenter and political activist), in new York. They were married in Japan in may 1952. Their marriage ended in divorce in 1957. Yamaguchi later became a television reporter and was covering the war in Vietnam, Cambodia and the middle East. Now she is Yoshiko Otaka, after her marriage to the Japanese diplomat, in addition she is a member of the Liberal Democratic party of Japan’s diet.
1951 March – Isamu Noguchi returned to Japan. June – priezjaet to Hiroshima to see the two bridges in the Peace Park and to design the rails for them. July – provide a ready-made project built in 1952. Comes in Gifu Prefecture, where he created the first designer lights Akari. Participates in the first Biennale in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Returned to new York in the winter and started working on the garden for the Lever Brothers Building.
1952 Return to Japan in the spring. Creates a firm and Studio in Kita kamakura in a traditional style, with one of the most famous potters of the 20th century in Japan, Kitaoji Rosanjin. September – the ceramic work of Isamu and Akari lamps, shown at the exhibition in the new Museum of Modern Art, Kamakura. For the first time, Akari lanterns available in Japan.
1954 International manufacturing rocking chairs and tables. November – shows Japanese ceramic sculpture in new York.
1956 the Sculptor begins work on garden design for the headquarters of UNESCO in Paris (completed in 1958), and Connecticut General Life Insurance Company, Bloomfield Hills, Connecticut (finished in 1957). Started working on a waterfall from the ceiling for 666 Fifth Avenue, new York (completed 1958). Creates iron sculptures in Japan.
1958 Moved to new York after the completion of the gardens of UNESCO. Creates a sheet aluminum sculpture factory lighting Edison Price, with Shoji Sadao.
1959 Creates the white marble sculpture, when Eleanor Ward refuses to put aluminum sculpture at its spring exhibition in the gallery Stable. Begins a series of sculptures made of wood, which then creates in bronze in Italy in 1962, and a number of stone sculptures, using the image of a sun circle.
1960 Begins work on a sculpture for First National City Bank Building Plaza Fort Worth, Tx (finished 1961). Begins work on the Sunken garden for the Library rare books and manuscripts at Yale University, new haven, Connecticut (completed 1964); and on Garden Sculptures Billy Rose, the Israel Museum, Jerusalem (completed in 1965). Design scenery for ballets by Martha Graham’s «Acrobats of God» and «Alcestis». July – included in Documenta II, Kassel, West Germany.
1961 Starts a five-year collaboration with Louis Israel Kahn (American architect, one of the authors of the urban plan of Philadelphia. He was a great architect of the 20th century, gained fame as the Creator of the monumental buildings of brick and reinforced concrete, which is an alternative organic architecture F. L. Wright and the austerity of the «glass boxes» by L. Mies van der Rohe and Phillip Johnson). Louis Kahn collaborated with sculptor Isamu Noguchi over the design project of a Playground for Riverside Drive Park in new York. Despite their redesigning this Playground five times, the project was cancelled by the new administration of mayor John Lindsay. Isamu works on Fountain, Mississippi for the John Hancock Insurance Company Building, New Orleans, Louisiana (completed in 1962).
1962 Works at the American Academy in Rome on wood and clay sculptures that vposledstvii will be cast in bronze. Worked in the marble quarries of the firm Henraux in Querceta, Italy. Returned to Italy to work annually during the decade.
1964 Creates gardens for the IBM headquarters, Armonk, new York.
1965 Begins work for the first time created a Playground, Kodomo No kuni (Children’s Land), near Tokyo, Japan (completed in 1966).
1966 Creates the latest design scenery for «Cortege of eagles» by Martha Graham. Creates a large painted steel sculpture installed outside the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo. In Italy, the Henraux quarries in doing a lot of work from the rough marble. Creates the Akari Foundation, new York, to support a creative exchange between the United States and Japan. Starts on the island of Shikoku, in collaboration with Masatoshi Izumi (stone Carver), who became the producer for Noguchi Isamu his latest stone sculpture. The first such sculpture was the «Black Sun» for the Seattle Art Museum.
1968 April – retrospective at the Museum of American Art Whitney, new York. Publishes autobiography. Creates a Red Cube, 140 Broadway, new York; and sculpture Octetra for Spoleto, Italy. Begins a series of stone tables and a number of marble sculptures.
1969 Creates sculpture Skyviewing for Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA. Establishes a Studio in the suburbs of Mure on the island of Shikoku, Japan, in collaboration with Masatoshi Izumi, and finishes for the first time, several large-scale sculptures made of basalt there. The black Sun, set in Seattle.
1970 Implementing nine fountains for Expo 70, Osaka, Japan.
1972 Starts work on the Dodge Fountain and Philip A. Hart Plaza, Detroit, Michigan, with Shoji Sadao (completed in 1979). Creates sculpture for Bayerische Vereins Bank, Munich, Germany.
1974 Begins work on Shinto, the Bank of Construction, Tokyo, new York (completed in 1975, destroyed 1980); and Intetra, Mist Fountain, to the Society of the Four Arts, Palm Beach, FL (completed in 1975). The Void sculpture is installed in Pepsico, Purchase, new York. May – Pribram the house across the street from his city Studio and begins to renovate it for a Museum of his sculptures.
1975 Creates a Landscape of Time, Jackson Federal building, Seattle, Washington. Starting a children’s Playground Playscapes, Piedmont Park, Atlanta, GA (completed 1976).
1976 Creates «Gates», the Justice Center Cuyahoga, Cleveland, Ohio, and begins «the Gate of Heaven», Honolulu, Hawaii. Starting the fountain for the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Il (completed in 1977).
1977 Momo Taro Begins to Storm King Art Center, Mountainville, new York, and Tengoku for the Sogetsu Flower Arranging School, Tokyo, Japan (both completed 1978).
1978 Begins the sculpture garden Lillie and Roy Cullen, the Museum of fine arts, Houston, Texas, with Shoji Sadao (completed in 1986). Exhibition of Landscapes Noguchi, organized by the Walker art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sam hunter published the first monograph on the artist Isamu Noguchi.
1979 Design of retail space, Finanziaria Fiere di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Starts the design of Bayfront Park, Miami, with Shoji Sadao (construction, 1993).
1980 Installation «Passage of Seasons» the Cleveland Art Museum, Cleveland, Ohio, and «Unidentified Object» in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York. Begins «Constellation» (Louis Kahn) of Kimbell Art Museum, Fort worth, TX (completed in 1983). Starts the modernization of the «Bolt of Lightening…» a memorial to Ben Franklin, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (established in 1984). Begins California Scenario, two urban center, southern area coast, Costa Mesa, Ca (completed in 1982); To the Issei and Japanese-American Cultural and Community Center Plaza, Los Angeles, California (completed in 1983), together with Shoji Sadao. The exhibition «The Sculpture of Spaces», the Museum of American Art Whitney, new York. The Fund becomes a Fund Akari Isamu Noguchi, with the intention of establishing a Museum of works by Noguchi in long island.
1981 Begins the design and construction of the Museum Noguchi, Shoji Sadao.
1983 Starts garden design in the Studio in Mure, Shikoku, Japan, Masatoshi Izumi.
1984 Finishes water garden for the Domon Ken Museum, Sakata, Japan.
May 1985 – official opening of the Noguchi Museum, long island, new York.
1986 June – represents the United States in the Venice Biennale, Venice, Italy. November – receives Kyoto prize from Inomori Foundation, Japan. Creates a Tsukubai fountain for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York.
June 1987 – receives the National Medal of Art in Washington, D.C.
1988 Creates a General plan for the 400-acre Park for Sapporo, Japan (in progress) and designs large sculptures for Takamatsu Airport, Shikoku, Japan (finished in 1991). July – provided by the Japanese government in the title of the Sacred treasure of the third order. December – receives award for the development in Sculpture from the Sculpture Center, new York.
December 30 – the sculptor Isamu Noguchi dies in new York.