Photographs of the interiors of a bathroom and history of bath
Baths of the highest level in Rome was erected near the mountain sources. The name of one of them – Spa – subsequently became common. The healing properties of mineral water have been widely known. Already the doctor recommended not only the internal use of aqua minerale, but also bathing in swimming pools filled with mineral water, massage the body with myriads of bubbles and has a beneficial effect on the skin.
The lead researcher of the European middle Ages is Fernand Braudel stressed the serious impact of religion on human representation of the time about life and, in particular, about hygiene. Effeminacy of the Gentiles, the Church opposed the asceticism of the spiritual and the physical. Agreeing with the first, to host the second was not easy. In France and Italy were actively developed mechanisms for water supply in major cities, then it mainly used for quenching thirst.
Jacques Le Goff in his book «the civilization of the medieval West,» noted the influence of Islamic culture on the knights participating in the Crusades. Daily ablutions prescribed by the Prophet, doubtless, found supporters among the Christians, but came into Vogue much later… the Reason is climatic differences. If in the Mediterranean and in the Arab world, the water did not need to heat up in Europe in winter, even the wine froze in the cups.In medieval Paris, however, historians have noted that record high concentration «Milan»-baths, both private and public. In «the Structures of everyday life», the first volume big research «the Material culture of civilizations», Fernand Braudel writes about it: «As for the wealthy homes, that they had «soap» in the basement; there were the steam room and tubs – usually wooden, stuffed, as for barrels, hoops». The ruling elite was the most exquisite – with the Emperor, Charles the Bold (XV century) in his campaigns constantly followed the convoy of a bath of pure silver.
| In the capital of France in those years there was even a floating baths on Board ships moored to the quay of the Seine. Nevertheless, the efforts of the Catholic Church in the XVI century it is characterized as a hotbed of Vice. As a substitute civilization relied on the achievements of perfumes. Around the year 1800 in London, adopted at Paris the title of trendsetter, there is not a single public bath. In parentheses note: archaeological excavations of the Finnish settlements of the XVIII century show that every peasant hut of the time were equipped with a sauna.
The revival of bath as an equal component of city apartments and mansions occurs only in the XIX century. A crucial role was played by the equipment of houses with plumbing, heating and sewage systems. Bathrooms stopped being just utility rooms, up from the basement level living rooms and bedrooms. And, of course, attracted the attention of architects and decorators. There was even a company specializing only in the production of materials for decoration of bathrooms, say, Villeroy&Boch, a pottery manufacturer founded in 1734. Quite a long time, the main thing for them was considered gidrostroitelej. And this quality have ceramic and marble in all its diversity – porcelain, faience, tiles. Alternative materials were used only in the twentieth century.
A typical example of the architectural solutions bathroom late nineteenth century can be seen in the interiors of multi-room apartments in St. Petersburg. And the concept of intimate hygiene, thanks to which bathrooms were devoid of Windows, are slowly starting to take positions. The bathrooms appears under the ceiling of a small window leading to the kitchen. Cast iron baths being located at a wall a marble. Allowed the only piece of furniture frames the sink Cabinet — bar with mirror and porcelain door.Much pamputae looks like the interior of a bathroom that time in the Palace of Felix Yusupov. In the Gothic revival mansion on the Fontanka embankment bathroom included a few enfilade of rooms, one of which is at the level of the marble floor was a small pool with a depth of about five feet. Here a prototype of a shower and cast iron tub with bronze legs and a few in the East, low sofas and armchairs. Right here the cast-iron spiral staircase led into the office. This area of the Palace is decorated, like his other room – everywhere is dominated by a carved oak panel with Gothic ornament.
From the Odyssey to the Hilton
The most important role in the style and interior of the bathrooms has played in the twentieth century the trend of hospitality. What could be better than a good bath for a weary traveler? Even crafty Odysseus, returning after a long journey home to Ithaca in the first place starts to water treatment and then removes the offenders of his wife Penelope. Hotels all over the world – from Madrid the Ritz hotel where he lived and worked for Hemingway, the new York Hilton – did the bathroom the most important component of the room. And such leading manufacturers equipping bathrooms, as Keuco and Gessi SpA proudly display on their websites the projects developed for the best hotels in the world. This, of course, could not promote the culture of the bathroom in private interiors. After returning from vacation or long trips, the wealthy family involuntarily wondered how to turn your bathroom into something more than just plumbing the room is tiled.
The initial field for the creativity of architects were bathrooms suites and suites in hotels. There is less spatial constraints. And here in the interiors of the bathrooms appeared zoning, fluorescent lighting, soft furnishings, potted plants and other items truly palatial luxury. However, in single rooms the designers have managed to create interior masterpieces.Single storey Indian Oberoi hotel in Jaipur is located inside of an old English Fort with thick walls and a drawbridge over the moat. Bathroom in each room is small – about six square meters. Half of this square is a square pool about a meter in depth, the second half – shower. From huge, full-wall, Windows were seen a little flowered garden, fenced with a deaf wall. Wonderful solution that expands the space and complies with all the requirements of intimacy.
The industrial revolution gave «temple of purity» a lot of solutions, without which a modern bathroom is unthinkable. In 1783 the British inventor Joseph bramah (also known for creating the float water closet), patent threaded faucet. About a century ago sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin, Creator of thermodynamics) is developing a mixer for hot and cold water. Although conservative, the British still prefer to use separate taps for cold and hot, making concessions only strangers in hotels.In the middle of the last century, in 1948, Italian immigrants Jacuzzi brothers patent in the United States the famous hot tub. A few years later, American entrepreneur Alex Manoogian launches single lever faucets.
Another great name in the history of the bathroom – Hans GROHE founded the production of water fittings in 1901 in Germany. Thirty years later one of his sons, Frederick, founded their own business. Today Hansgrohe and Grohe AG (the latter belongs the honor of the invention in the 1970s of a shower) are the main producers of sanitary equipment. As in the automotive industry, in this field, reliability is just as important as aesthetics, so many users prefer the traditional German quality. On the website tub ru you can always purchase the best models of sanitary ware from leading manufacturers!
The birth of foam
Comprehensive architectural solutions bathrooms have pushed the most forward-thinking producers of plumbing equipment to work with recognized authorities in the field of design. A striking example is the collaboration with Philippe Starck the Italian company Teuco.Bathroom, like any room at home, experienced the influence of many architectural styles in a relatively short period. Today, the majority of equipment suppliers and their design Studio is based on two stylistic vector – classic and minimalism. There is an interim direction, became widespread in the late twentieth century, then Italian designers surprised the world with washbasins made of wood with a glass front wall. Let us call it postmodernism, primarily by quoting the nostalgic shapes of the washbasins and the bath barrel by using modern, sometimes unexpected materials.