Unpopular rules and principles governing our life
Our lives are surrounded by laws — you can’t go anywhere, not to bury in some public, social or moral regulator. On the one hand, it is very useful, on the other, too limits the free kind, especially because some laws are absolutely idiotic. That’s a shame that the laws and principles presented in this article, so are rarely used and remembered by ordinary people in everyday life.
Stupid people plow 100% interest and was horrified to note his low profit. You tried, plowed, and have achieved nothing. However, as a rule, rarely comes to the ratio of the numbers 100 and 0, appear increasingly the numbers 80 and 20. And here starts the law of Pareto, the essence of which is that only a small fraction of the reasons that the effort and investment is responsible for a large part of the results, the remuneration earned or received products. Simply put, 20% of efforts give 80% of the desired result and Vice versa 80% of the effort turn only implement 20% of the desires.
Despite the fact that «20% of efforts give 80% of result,» it is often impossible to organize activities so as not to expend the remaining 80% of effort. Even in science there is a principle, which States that «20% of scientists do 80% of the discoveries and create 80% of the inventions, but it would have been impossible if it were not for the remaining 80% of scientists».
When science fiction writer Theodore Stergiou on one of his press conferences said that 90% of science fiction is complete nonsense, what he said a phrase that later became known as «sturgeon’s revelation». This phrase often need to remember all those who puts a lot of effort into their work, and as a result gets hairy shish butter, disappointment and sadness.
This sentence sounds as follows: «90% of anything is crap, but the other 10 enough.»
A brilliant formula that perfectly explains how stupid the world is, and how devalued the word «merit». Like many a genius, it arose spontaneously.
It’s not balanced, carefully studied the rule, not at all. But therein lies a grain of common sense — at least life carefully confirms that it is correct. So if possible, cut off the excess so it did not sink the main.
In the XIV century Franciscan monk and part-time philosopher nominalistic William of Occam said «Diversity should not be assumed without necessity.» A modern interpretation of the phrase is: «Lucchese solution is the simplest».
The law was not without reason called the razor, because it implies a mental cut off all the excess. About the same, and one of Parkinson’s laws: «Expansion means complexity, and complexity — decomposition».
Mistrust, conflict and a tendency to a rapid and categorical estimates to create a lot of unpleasant moments in life and work. Many are trying to highlight these things in General pattern and even came up with a good expression, «the human factor», but in fact it is a common human folly. It then comes to the aid of a completely different razor this time Hanlon, which gives a graceful General principle, the literal understanding of which is optional: «Never attribute to malice what could be explained by stupidity» — as it sounds.
Especially imbued with this idea, when some enthusiasts (including those from the community of journalists) start to look for «invisible hand» where they can not be. Recall, the presidents of the superpowers not shitting in the hallways. But it is much easier to assume that the world is ruled by the judicious many moves ahead evil, than to admit the obvious: the world is ruled by chaos, stupidity, utter incompetence and startling that do not fit in a conventional head the irresponsibility of individuals who use these solutions.
The Peter Principle
Alas, nothing on Earth lasts forever. Any idea on service life, is very fleeting. Although the desire to use proven and in the tail and mane theory for years, and even eternity, is large enough, Lawrence Peter stopped all attempts of its concrete principle: «Any well-working thing or idea will be used in increasingly difficult conditions, until the cause of the accident». You should also keep in mind a particular case: «In a hierarchical system, any employee rises to his level of incompetence».
Occurs a paradoxical rise to the level of incompetence for value and socio-economic pressure. The more the system employees who have reached the level of incompetence, the lower become the company’s competence standards. The whole system is degraded, and do work in it are still employees who have not yet risen to their level of incompetence.
The Law Of Yerkes-Dodson
But we will discuss one very popular and favorite topic in our magazine — motivation. It turns out that it is also necessary to be very careful. In other words: «There is a certain boundary beyond which a further increase in motivation leads to poor results.» Regardless of positive or negative motivation. In 1908, during a scientific experiment animals were taught to pass the maze, «citing» shocks. Adequate was the average intensity of motivation»: when it is increased, the efficiency of «work» has decreased. Often it is not the intensity, but the essence of motivation and human psychology. All of this is the law of Yerkes-Dodson.
1949 on the basis of the U.S. air force of the armed forces of Edwards in California, a certain engineer named Edward Murphy argued that if you do something wrong, those stupid techs exactly what I’ll do.
The thing is that his legendary phrase: «If there are two ways to do something, and one of them leads to disaster, somebody will choose this way» were first spoken at a time when launched airborne the engine began to spin the propeller in the wrong direction. As it turned out, technology has somehow managed to put the parts on backwards.
Words Murphy turned into a humorous, but very real law, which ironically explains all the bad things in life. Laws a lot, and there is an excuse for every failure, for example: «From whatever side you may have started a pie — filling will definitely be the opposite.» The most insulting, that all that can help the law to warn you that all good will never happen. So don’t be surprised if someone makes a mistake — humble yourself and relax.
Analyzing the activities of the state institutions of the British historian Cyril Parkinson in 1955, he formulated a number of principles, which later became known as the laws of Parkinson’s. One of them is a masterpiece sobering mind when I want to delay: «all work expands to fill all the allotted time on it». In the «smearing» of terms most of the time is spent on «aging». It can be both positive and negative. Understanding and finding a beautiful solution is needed for aging plan. This rarely helps: generally, compromise the intent of «a little more – and I will» only relieves nervousness and allows to postpone the case until the deadline.
There are two Parkinson’s law is completely deprived of any kind had no illusions: «the Importance and complexity of the task increases proportionally allocated to its decision time» and «If there is a way to postpone taking important decisions, a bureaucrat will find.» In one word, how would Cyril warns that in dealing with bureaucrats quickly nothing can not go, so suck it up and don’t plan.