The usual things that put scientists in a deadlock
In school, you are chock-stuffed with a ton of concepts that led to the understanding of the simplest things.
11 years were not in vain: now how dare you divide by zero only in the nightmare, and then a half-day walk with a sense of guilt.
It turned out that we also do not understand, and, frankly, we are sick of it. Enough is enough! It’s time to break this vicious circle and back again to consider what we don’t know about. And the first item in this list will be…
This basic and ubiquitous substance, which occupies a large part of the Earth’s surface and is a major part of our body. Of course, we have studied the water up and down, like nothing else, and especially good we get to turn water into urine.
What you learned:
An outstanding biochemist with worldwide recognition albert Szent-Gyorgyi called water the «Matrix of life».
A large part of the third planet from the sun covered her, making the Earth from space looks blue. Seas and oceans cover slightly less than three quarters of the earth’s surface. Countless rivers and lakes scattered across the continents, and together with oceanic water and groundwater, constitute the so-called hydrosphere – water shell of the Earth.
Total water enclosed in the hydrosphere is about 1.5 billion cubic kilometers. Of them fresh water is slightly more than two percent of about 35 million cubic kilometers. However, from these fresh waters, potentially usable, nearly 69% are represented by glaciers, and more than 30% is in aquifers deep underground.
In various tissues of the human body water is in different percentages. Bones are 22% water, brain 75%, muscles 75% blood 92%. The loss of water in an amount less than 2% of body weight (1-1,5 l) there is thirst, with loss of 6-8% comes semiconscious state, at 10% – hallucinations, impaired swallowing. The loss of 10-20% water life-threatening.
Scientists are unanimous in the opinion that some of the characteristics of H2O simply violate all the laws of nature, and almost all the physico-chemical properties of water – an exception to the rule.
Water is a unique lady with character, living by its own laws. And if we could get this bitch to choose some form, she would rather wear leather jackets, sat on the bike and disappeared in an unknown direction.
For a start, water does not apply the law of the periodic system of Mendeleev. According to the logic of the system, water would freeze at -90 °C and it freezes at 0°C, boiling at +70 °C and it boils at +100 °C».
Almost all known substances during the transition from liquid to solid, compressed, and the water is rather widening. Its volume thus increases by about 9%. Similarly is the case with the dynamic properties of water: its compressibility is so low that allows the plant shoots, the body of which consists mainly of water, it is easy to break through the asphalt.
The water is not only abnormally high heat of evaporation, protects our body from overheating, but abnormally high latent heat of fusion.
And actually, I want faster to freeze the water to start giving it a good boil!
This phenomenon is called the Mpemba paradox, which States that hot water (under certain conditions) can freeze faster than cold, although it must be temperature of the cold water in process of freezing.
This incredible nonsense noticed in 1963 dangarinski schoolboy Erasto Mpemba, he was called to account of his physics teacher, but he just laughed in the face of the young naturalist with the words: «This is not the world physics, and the physics Mpemba!» But the student is not so easy it was confusing, and he asked the same question arrived at school Dennis Osborne, Professor of physics. Experimental verification confirmed the existence of the effect, but did not give his explanation.
In fact, the phenomenon was first discovered by Aristotle, but this guy managed to be the first in almost all areas, even if only a small piece of Laurel will get and Mpemba.
What you learned:
Time is an irreversible current that moves in only one route: from the past through the present into the future. And how would you not want to go back, to rectify any state of Affairs is impossible: we are all moving in the same direction and with the same speed.
Although, if your name is Marty McFly and your friend doctor Emmett brown, you’re this nonsense is of no concern.
When physicists derive formulas their highly intelligent nature of reality, they do not include the time factor, as it has no values for them. Formulas work the same, as if time was going forwards, backwards or to the side. According to physicists, time is nothing more than an illusion.
Mr. Einstein had an opinion on this: we experience time at relative speeds.
The one who sits on the priest exactly, is aging slower than someone who runs headlong.
And it’s not just philosophy that has no real evidence to work properly, GPS satellites must account for the relativity of time, because the time on the satellite literally moves slower than on Earth.
GPS clock on the SPACECRAFT, flying at a speed of about 3 km/s relative to the Ground, going slower by 7,200 NS/day than the same clock placed on the Earth.
Theory says that because of gravity the slower time flows: that is, the more gravity and the more the curvature of space-time at the point, the slower time flows relative to an observer far from the massive body, creating a curvature.
So scientists who work on the International space station return to Earth younger than their colleagues pogodak on Earth, as the time on the blue Planet moves faster than it does in space.
Of course, the difference is slight, but is that they will not be pleased when they come to congratulate you on your fortieth anniversary?
3. Plants are smarter than you look
What you learned:
The plant is reasonably located at the bottom of the food chain. They have no brain, no sense of humor, no ability to move, so they correspond to the concept of «organism» only on a very General level.
What if I tell you what even a plant knows math better than you?
Researchers at the Center for John Innes in Norway found that plants have the ability to solve mathematical equations. They do it to find out how much starch they remained in reserve in the evening because plants produce food for themselves only in sunlight. Every evening they create a surplus, to make sure they have enough food for the night, and, consequently, adjust your diet.
Don’t panic, the plants were capable of scheming against the mankind, because they have no brain and do it unconsciously.
But the fact remains: their cells are like little calculators high degree of difficulty.
Although plants have no language, this does not mean that they can’t communicate. Are you familiar with the delightful aroma of freshly cut grass? The smell of childhood, sun and happiness, which tells you that it is summer… And it really is a cry for help the crippled grass.
Plants do not communicate by sound and smell. And although they don’t have nervous systems like us, they have a rudimentary nerve structure which allows them to feel some semblance of pain. Think about what fresh herbal smell only shorn lawn warns neighbor’s lawn, chops them crazy with his various torture devices.
It is a call to the rest of the district grass run away and escape. But the real tragedy is that herbs are not very good at running.
4. The mysterious number «PI»
What you learned:
It is related to the circle? And you can remember the formula for determining the circumference of a circle from primary school? In fact, only there you useful. Geeks know a little bit more.
This is what is called an «irrational number», it cannot be written in full or represented as a fraction. If you try to write PI on a piece of paper, then you will need a lot of paper and a lot of time, because it is literally infinite.
This number is very perfectly for our mortal world, and how the numbers are distributed randomly and never repeated, then there is no way to remember it.
No matter how many times you say that 22 divided by 7 equals PI. No one can be trusted.
We can’t really calculate the circumference, because we really don’t know what is PI. Can come as close to the answer — we calculated it up to 10 trillion digits.
The figure, which comes in the beginning distilling digital values is the unit.
PI is an infinite non-repeating combinations of numbers, it contains every possible sequence of digits. If you take these figures as a kind of system, we know that in General there is no point. But from time to time, there are certain combinations.
A million digits you will be able to find the banana and encrypted, and encrypted dog. Look at them a little longer, maybe you will discover the secret of the universe?
And not this and any other universe. PI is a Matrix. PI is also Zion outside of the Matrix. PI — it was you when watching «the Matrix» sitting on the sofa.
5. The space may have 11 dimensions
What you learned:
We live in a world of three dimensions. This means that we can move up and down, right and left, forward and backward. Do you use these important knowledge when chopped in your console.
And in fact:
Science is only beginning to explore the true nature of space, but currently it is widely believed that measurement is 11. This means that things can move up and down, right and left, forward and backward, as well as in eight other areas where it may be.
«And how’s that supposed to mean?!» you can ask.
Measurement is not a journey to other worlds through the portal in the mirror. First of all, this is the usual direction of movement.
The smartest of you may know about time as a fourth dimension — the movement from past to future, but we’re still left with 7 more, and we already talked about the fact that not quite understand time.
In 1884, teacher Edwin Abbott wrote the novel «Flatland», where the plot unfolded in a world of two dimensions. The flatlanders can move forward and backward, right and left, but they didn’t understand what it means up and down.
The events unfolded around what happened when a resident of the world of three dimensions tried to talk to one of the flatlanders. The hero of the two measurements could not see the stranger, because he was not understanding the top and bottom: he was convinced that the stranger is only a voice in his head.
Similarly, in the us there is no understanding of what is happening in other dimensions, because we can’t see and even think in these directions. But science suggests that they exist because, like in flatland, sometimes particles disappear from our world and reappear somewhere else.
We call this strange phenomenon of «quantum tunneling». Scientists suspect that strange particles do not just shy away and travel through other dimensions to get to the new location.
The reason for me to stop thinking about all this, maybe the thought of beings from the higher dimensions who can observe you when you’re doing something indecent. So… Take a straight face and continue to go about their business.