The scientific facts that ceased to be true since high school
It seems there is nothing more permanent than a large school of truth. Fungi are a separate Kingdom, a cat — chord, the man has odd edges. It is knowledge that does not change, which seem to us unchanged, but oddly, we counted some knowledge that is no longer valid since the school. What is that knowledge, man? Now we will tell you about it.
1. There’s a fifth ocean
Yes, before we were sure that only four oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Arctic. But not so long ago scientists have identified a separate southern ocean. Srach on this occasion did not subside until now.
South ocean, by the way, represents the waters around Antarctica. Often they represent the ice, but there are those that are in a liquid state. Some researchers believe that the southern ocean is a collection of three oceans, not a single ocean but many species of animals, climatically and geologically they are unique, so it makes sense to allocate these waters as the fifth ocean. In fact, there is only one indivisible ocean of the World. Proponents of the theory of the four oceans can do nothing to divide.
2. Everest not the highest mountain in the world
So, man, and children are still taught this. If you were looking for another reason to not include climbing mount Everest in their list of things to do before you die, then we found it. Of course, adventurers can continue to climb the mountain, it is an act of man, in the end.
The height of mount Everest, or Chomolungma, as you like, — 8848 meters. It is the highest peak in the world that has killed many people who tried to climb on it. But there is a peak that is much higher. Mauna Kea seems in comparison with Everest a small hill. Its height above sea level of just 4205 m, it is not even in the top ten of the highest peaks in the world. But most of the mountain is under water. When measuring the height from ocean floor the height of Mauna Kea is 10 203 m, which is much higher than Everest. On the other hand, is almost the same what to measure the cock and balls. Ron Jeremy does not approve.
3. Pluto no longer a planet.
I think this news even heard of cannibals in Africa. Eight years ago, astronomers decided that Pluto isn’t good enough to be a planet. While in school, he seemed to me frankly fine for the planet, and I fundamentally for the planet was not considered. And who was right?!
Discovered and accredited as the ninth planet of our Solar system in February 1930 Pluto for some time, shone in school textbooks as a full-fledged planet. In 1977, when it was first seen minor planet 2060 Chiron, began an active review of the status of Pluto. Around the same time were found many icy interstellar objects that resembled Pluto and had a similar orbit.
The final nail in the coffin of Pluto was scored in 2005 with the opening of the TRANS-Neptunian object Eris, which is 27 percent more massive than Pluto. After the discovery of Eris, the international astronomical Union decided that you need to create a new planetary classification to separate large from small planet. Pluto and Eris (formerly Xena) has called dwarf planets, or plutoids. By the way, in English with these debates introduced a new verb «to pluto», which can be translated as «to uplotnitel».
4. Brontosaurus and Triceratops is not unique dinosaurs
So, two charismatic creatures and heroes of my childhood blatantly excluded from the list of dinosaurs. Rather, they are not unique views. It is believed that Triceratops is the younger version of torosaurus. Some scientists believe that torosaurus acquired characteristic differences with age. In 2009, the Explorer John Scannella added torosova of the genus Triceratops. Prior to that, he was treated as a separate species in the genus ceratopsid. First, though, John Scannella and Jack Horner wanted the Triceratops to call the young version of torosaurus, but Triceratops was more known name, so they decided to leave him.
Brontosaurus has become a victim of advertising and popular literature. In the late nineteenth century began the so-called «war bones», when well-known scholars in all seriousness has combined the bones of different dinosaurs to create new types of dinosaurs and outshine their predecessors. In 1877, Othniel Marsh found the bones of the four legs and neck of the huge reptilian creatures. Then he described the creature as Apatosaurus. His rival Edward cope found a partial skeleton and being called a Brontosaurus, or thunder lizard.
It was later revealed that the tail, which cope attached to the bones, refers to other marine reptiles, and a Brontosaurus is not. Many researchers, by the way, are inclined to believe that the bones of that reptile with a long neck belong to another species, but the evidence yet.
5. «Pyramid power» — a relic of the past
If you remember, the biology lessons taught such a thing as «pyramid power». At the bottom of the pyramid were the foods that should be consumed most often, the higher you went up the pyramid, the less often you need to use these or other products. One time food in some schools is trying to build, focusing on her. But, as always, fell in pies, stewed fruit from the bucket and green polka dots everywhere. The Americans quite a long time to build a system of food for students at food pyramid, but she refused. I remember the anatomy lessons we are actively taught, saying, here it is, the only true power. Even in the University food pyramid was always there. Turns out it was a terrible mistake.
Back in 1992, when «pyramid power» was coined by the first Bush administration, she had many enemies. Diet was absolutely perfect, did not take into account the problems of obesity, protein and dairy products has not been paid much attention, as well as white meat. The «food pyramid» was replaced by the program «Food plate». This program divides all products into five categories: fruits, vegetables, proteins, grains and dairy products — and trying to ensure their balance.
6. The great wall of China is the only manmade object that is visible from space
In truth, astronauts from space have seen a lot of man-made objects. Night bad seen of the city due to the light, Christmas lights colored spots visible around the world, and some well-known sights, if desired, can be easily seen from space.
Not so long ago the magazine Scientific American published a study according to which the Great wall of China is visible from space only in some cases. More specifically, a small close to the earth, at a certain weather, humidity and the angle of incidence of sunlight. Here is such garbage. Google Earth.