The ominous Friday the 13th
Time to celebrate Old New year in the company of Satan. Because today, if you have noticed, the ominous Friday the 13th, or, as they say, «Baker’s dozen». I’m afraid that number not only because of the movie and failed space missions of Americans here deeper roots, and, as always, was not without the most published books in history. As a result, the world is full of triskaidekaphobia — people who are afraid of that number. Of course we will tell you stories that gave the number slavemaster, but remember that the bad omens are only those who believe in them.
Friday 13 in history and fiction
Although folklorists claim that until the nineteenth century there were no written reasons for prejudice, and in the Middle ages and in the earlier period the common people were afraid of the «devil’s dozen». And the reason for religion.
According to Catholic ravings, Friday the 13th was one of the most significant events or incidents in the history of Christianity — crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
«The father of English poetry» Geoffrey Chaucer in his «Canterbury tales» remembered that this is not the best for Jesus day had a clear date.
One of the most popularized myths that try to explain the ill-fated date associated with the event on Friday, October 13, 1307 when hundreds of knights Templar were arrested EN masse and burned throughout France. Since then the Templars have seen is that in Assassin’s Creed. Strange feature — the king and the Pope, arranged the trial of the Templars, died in agony, but branch of the Royal Capetian ceased to exist. It happened again, 13 years after the death of Philip the fair. Since then, France and was smitten with terror of the number 13.
Even accounting for the books of accounts, old accountants put a cross (as guardian) next to the numbers 13, if met in the reports. This myth has attracted the attention of the public after it had been used and moserova Dan brown and some other historical writers, without end spreading conspiracy theories connecting the Templars, the Freemasons and the Holy Grail.
As Gods annoy numbers
In the same restless 19th century, the number 13 became associated with Judas Iscariot, who was the 13th who sat at the table during the last supper. As we remember from the rock Opera, Judas sang very well, but he passed his friend and teacher to the authorities, since symbolizing Western society are treachery and bad luck. Of course, there is no evidence that Judas was the 13th, not the home, because surveillance cameras that are not recorded. But the pious society was only just one hearing to grow stronger in their hatred of the Baker’s dozen and all days of the week that are associated with it.
There is one more little reason, which seems far-fetched nonsense, but in the Middle ages it had a lot of faith. One legend says that it is Friday the 13th eve persuaded Adam to bite from the ill-fated Apple of the tree of Knowledge. The result is known — nibbled Apple they were banished to earth. A little later, allegedly on Friday the 13th, Cain killed Abel and after that day were forever cursed.
In other gods, the number 13 is also a special honor did not use. According to ancient Norse mythology, around the table sat 12 gods, when the feast came the 13th uninvited God, the one who is worse than a Tatar. They found Loki, who in Norse mythology they could be. Loki provoked a quarrel, in which the God of winter Hodur sent a spear at the God of light, sun and justice of Baldur. However, Hodor would not be able to kill anyone — he was blind. But the treacherous Loki pushed his hand in the right direction. And Baldur was killed and the earth reigned winter and freezing cold.
In even more ancient cultures, the number «13» also tried to lower. For example, in the code of laws of Babylonian king Hammurabi, one of the oldest legal monuments of the world, dated 1750 years B. e .. (just think about that number), item number 13 is missing.
But those who do not believe in gods, but believes in the mysticism of the number 13 is not alone thanks to the Tarot cards, in which the thirteenth Arcanum is called the Grim Reaper or simply Death.
In numerology the number 12 represents perfection and completeness. 12 months in a year, 12 gods of Olympus, 12 hours a day, 12 tribes of Israel, 12 apostles of Jesus, 12 descendants of Muhammad imams everywhere stable dvenadcati. It is believed that adding a number to 12, you incur the failure. Ever since I went stupid beliefs: 13 steps will lead the family to misfortune, 13 coins — to the ruin and public transport at number 13 will bring passengers misfortune.
However, numerology is not without the help of religion came up with a brilliant explanation. Since ancient times the philosophers-mystics have tried to describe our world, its structure and development laws with the help of numbers. First was God is a «unit». He then started building up and made the light is «deuce». Then he separated light from darkness is «three». But it was more spiritual, or, in other words, the world is unmanifested. And God made the earth and the firmament is «four.» And four is nothing like 1+3, without a plus — 13. This number represents how would the roughness or the «fall» of the spiritual world. Some authors connect it with the fallen angel Satan — the ruler of the underground hell. So the number 13 was bad.
The Sabbath and the vicissitudes of medieval life
This version is perhaps the most incredible, but it seems like this just now. But during the Inquisition, this was said in all seriousness. The fact that in the opinion of medieval people, witches prefer to gather on the Sabbath that is Friday. In their meetings the witches mocked the people who cast curses and destroyed the crops. But most importantly — to participate in a Sabbath was allowed solely 12 witches. Thirteen was an invited guest, he is the owner of the disco, Beelzebub, Lucifer or simply the devil. But it is rather a consequence of the biblical hostility to this number.
Another good medieval should discredit the normal number, was associated with a penalty. Traditionally it was believed that to the gallows led 13 stops. Also, according to legend, a monster to hunt-hangman’s noose has 13 turns — turns of the rope. And as die people are not particularly fond, successfully designed similar detail on their life.
Fighters against prejudice
But there were those who like the fashion trends unsettled. The people became so superstitious that he preferred not to sit at the table of 13 people, because it was believed that sure within a year someone dies from sitting. And then there are the Braves, who began the fight against prejudice. In 1882 several influential new Yorkers decided to do away with this prejudice and organized a Club of thirteen. Under the leadership of the brave captain William Fowler, the legendary veteran of the Civil war, January 13, on Friday, gathered 13 people in the room No. 13 cottage «the Knick».
The table was set for 13 people before each device lay slides spilled salt on the plates of the crossed knives. In short, the members of the Club of thirteen, decided to defy fate and prove the folly of superstition. To refute omen they decided empirically: monthly 13 th dinner of 13 guests at the table — if one of them dies, then the sign works. But if at the end of the year all remain alive, then the sign is lying. After a year it became clear that all members of the club live and thrive. Moreover, their ranks were joined by many new members who challenged the devil’s dozen.
Soon the number of clubs in the country became 13, and then moved over a hundred. Club movement and moved overseas, selling all over the world. It was decided to establish a membership fee. It was 13 dollars, 13 cents.
Dry voice statistics
For many years, disturbed by the evil magic of numbers, people carefully keep the records of observations of events on Friday, the 13th, hoping to get the answer: should not be afraid.
In 1993 the British Medical Journal stated that there was «a significant increase in the number of accidents on Friday 13th, but the study’s author later admitted that this was nonsense, and he made it all up to mess with people.
At the same time, Dutch researchers found that in fact on Friday, 13 risk of injury is much less. The study suggested that people were preventively more careful in the result of prejudice.
Between 2006 and 2008, it was discovered that, on average, 7800, fatal accidents falls on every Friday, and it is much more than on Friday, 13.
Not Friday 13th but Tuesday the 17th
Italians love the number 13, for them it is the number of blood, fertility and potency. Like the ancient Egyptians, who believed that the 13th stage of life is associated with the afterlife. Therefore, the inhabitants of the Apennine Peninsula was more afraid of Friday the 17th, while the younger generation begins to believe that 13 is even worse.
In Spanish-speaking countries bad superstitions associated with Tuesday. They maintain that the Greeks, who still believe Tuesdays are the days of harsh, capricious and terrible, because in ancient times they were believed in the power of the God of war Ares.