The New York Times newspaper scandals, intrigues and investigations
A few dudes from our editorial Board, faculty of journalism, hearing the name of this colossus of journalism like The New York Times, are beginning to gradually change its color to green, as their cooperation with the printing press was limited to practice in local publications like «Red dawn» or «Our harvest». For them, the name Henry Jarvis Raymond is not an empty phrase, and it is somewhere between jobs, Zuckerberg, and Branson. «Who is it?» you can ask us, and today we are happy to this answer.
Henry Jarvis Raymond is an American journalist who lived in the early 19th century. He fully understood that journalism is the fourth estate, but to him this power was not enough, and he chose the path of politics. Raymond is full of have combined business with pleasure, my calling and ambitions, noting his life the Lieutenant Governor of new York and founded one of the largest Newspapers in the world The New York Times on September 18 1851. He was nicknamed «the little thief» is a mild epithet, characterized in 50 years for very courteous journalists. The first output of the newspaper the New York Daily Times was loudly they advertise: «We write impartially! It’s a must! We must be objective!»
In the fifties among the print media was incredible the dominance of the so-called «penny press» —Newspapers are cheap, costing one penny. Low price and cheaper information were given to baser tastes of the readers head. All the assorted variants of «Penny press» was yellow, yellow, constantly fanned an incredible sensation, made fictional expose, reveal a cunning intrigue, and the people ate with great pleasure. Another unchanging thing in all ages and generations. The periodicals market has been poisoned with lies, «ducks» and registered political articles. Theodore Parker, American writer and politician, in his article «the Political purpose of America» is aptly named face the press at that time reflected the face of the nation. So when in the arena of print journalism appeared in the local newspaper «new York times,» people gasped in surprise: neither «facts» about human-like humanoids found on moon, bloody stories of dismemberment and murder of well-known people not less known persons. Only quality information and accurate facts described competent and «good» language.
«New York daily times» (the word «daily» was removed) was released by Raymond with the help of several companions and immediately set the high bar for all editions of the States. The pages of the Newspapers pleasing to the eye a variety of topics and headings, and writing style brought the periodicals on the literary level. The founding father said that his publication regardless of the influence of different parties and he was personally responsible for the veracity and integrity of each text, putting at the forefront of education, morality, industry, and religion.
During the raging civil war for the abolition of slavery news from the military front was the front pages of Newspapers, trying to maintain the morale and the faith of those who are fighting for justice. Though behind the scenes, Raymond supported the President’s decision, although the NYT was set up a few critical of Lincoln. And interestingly, the Raymond appeared on the battlefield.
In 1865 the war ended, Southerners filed the surrender on April 10, and less than a week later Lincoln was assassinated in a theatre box by a supporter of the deposed Confederate George. Booth. Information about the tragedy instantly scattered across the country. Articles about the Lincoln assassination gave rise to the principle of «inverted pyramid», which is used by many respected publications and up to this day: the first paragraph contains critical information (who, where, when, etc.), and other facts of importance are published in reverse order.
The next key milestone in the history of Newspapers — 1869, the year of the death of Henry Jarvis Raymond. The company has only three people: George Jones, Leonard Gerot and James Taylor. July 22, 1869, on the fifth week after the death of Raymond, the main officials of the newspaper, was elected the new editor — John Bigelow, but his career in the New York Times did not last long. In 1896, Adolph Ochs bought the New York Times and founded the New York Times Company. From here begins one of the most famous newspaper dynasties Ochs-Sulzberger.
Adolph Ochs was able to reduce the cost of publication, while making policy of the newspaper independent from advertisers. The NYT has established itself as a successful regional publication that has reached the Federal level of the importance, and political independence has not disappeared and has not diminished. During the «Cold war» newspaper is distinguished by the fact that the press has acquired a strong anti-Russian tone. Magazine Journalism Quarterly conducted a study in 1946, having ascertained the result is that The New York Times printed a much higher percentage of negative information about the Soviet Union than positive, especially after 1945, setting the reader on a negative and biased manner. In principle, nothing surprising in this. Even for such a «nezavismoy Newspapers.
The New York Times courageously overcame all crises, until 1990, when our staff and the leadership faced strong outflow of readers: not less than 50 thousand people for several blocks, mostly young people, preferred the more modern editions. The main audience of the newspaper remained prosperous stratum of the population with high purchasing power and advertising was directed mostly at them.
Conservatism was indeed the second name of this newspaper, because until the September 1976 edition remained in the format of eight columns, and only years later, after other papers had switched to six format, they have also descended to such innovations. She was also one of the last Newspapers who took the colour photographs. The first color photograph on the cover of this newspaper appeared in 1997. In the absence of the main title is the most important story of the day appears at the top of the right column on the first page. The critics with one voice asserted that The New York Times is not that outdated practices and poor adaptation to the realities of modern life deprives her fans and readers across the country.
However, not paying attention to these rumors, the company’s policy is adhered to its course, without losing the main principle is «reliability». The dark days are gone, but today for many people in the United States the title of this paper remains synonymous with the reliability of the source that does not require additional arguments. Perhaps that’s a disadvantage, but not to mention the hard work of all those who for many decades has created a similar reputation, numerous rules, restrictions and prohibitions, force journalists to refer to the selection of the information very carefully and not to distort the content of careless speech turnover.
Now The New York Times — the third most popular (after The Wall Street Journal and USA Today) newspaper USA. The press of this country is impossible to imagine without a newspaper, which to this day remains a Bastion of American journalism and the undisputed role model.