The history of prohibition booze. Part 1: prohibition in the United States
Booze is known to be ambiguous. And if most people drink from time to time to maintain the tone or fun, it is a minority terrible rages when someone’s having a good time. In General, as one Russian philosopher Golovin, «all wars in the twentieth century began sober people, think about it.» So, if you imagine that in the Ancient World someone decided to ban sane booze, he would just be tight. Previously, alcohol was not just a drink to a drunk lying in the bushes, everything was a little different. Mixed Wine with water, and sometimes they do not mix and drank as an ordinary daily drink, it is possible to boost your immune system, improve health, and how to prevent some of the diseases associated with infections, and the like.
In addition, there was all of these concepts, built on modern morality «drinking husband – trouble in the family», people quietly drinking, nobody hunted it, and drunkards became only those who had the opportunity. But I agree, sooner would you could easily the whole day to spend on something to drink. You would have needed to grow food, to carry stones for the construction of the pyramid of your favorite Pharaoh, and to participate in the wars against the Persians. Anyway, time to sleep for the average person is not enough, but all used to drink. Something like the concept of «culture of drinking», which is now distributed a reasonable part of mankind.
So when this idea came about as the prohibition of alcoholic beverages? If not in ancient times, when? After all, we ourselves become witnesses to the fact that the rights of drinkers and smokers, too, are increasingly limited. And we do not mind, because I do not quite understand how to perceive it. In schools the same drum: «Drinking is bad – OK, cigarettes are bad – OK?» It seems to us that it would be best to show the history of prohibition and anti-alcohol bans in different countries may not be quite complete, but is quite clear. Who has banned booze, why and for what reasons. In General, let’s look at the people that so vehemently fight on the moral front and advocate for the health of mankind. Maybe they need to be much cuter than a husky. And we begin with the prohibition that took place in the States.
Probably the most famous era of «outlaw alcohol» is the time of prohibition in the United States. And it’s really really tough time, actually. But let’s first tell you a little history of epic failure of the American government.
It all started, as always. At the end of the First world war rose the head of the conservatives and fans to stand up for «American ideals» and «American spirituality». In General, very clearly – talk about morality most of all go after the war. Democrats then that nothing really could not do, and the conservative party itself is quite entrenched in power. And it helped that the supporters of the new national policies have been in both main political forces of the country. And one of the first demands of the conservatives was the introduction of the Dry law in all the States. It lasted from 1920 to 1933. For tens of years before in the country, of course, was the anti-alcohol movement, but it is rather acted freaks like us. The main participants of such movements usually were religious radicals in the face of the puritans and Protestants, as well as the organization of women who clearly did not like drunken men. But as it turned out, the Protestant ideals of rural residents do not like the progressive citizens or just men who liked to drink a glass of Bourbon after a hard work. This led to the fact that in a very short time a great number of the adult population has engaged in illegal production of alcohol, and organized sales and smuggling. And then there was widely beloved for the films of Francis Ford Coppola, the American mafia, which in some cities, the authorities kept much stronger than the feds.
And although the ban on alcohol took place under the slogan «fight for morals», those people who push for this initiative at the highest levels, does not care about the moral state of his people. Spirituality, both now and before, it’s beautiful words and deeds are always people with money and for money. Proof of this are the business community of the United States, the majority supported the initiative of the new government, industrial corporations, interested in expanding production due to military orders, also joined the anti-alcohol campaign. Largely the reason was the circulation of grain, which was needed for sale in Europe, and not to any brewery was doing a beer, that is right, you can see the struggle between the big monopolists from smaller production companies. The simple-minded residents of the province whose children attend Sunday school while the adults hung out and got to know is that in churches that actively supported the new «moral» renewal of the country.
The ban was not imposed immediately. By 1920, the States were divided into two camps – «dry» and «wet». And «wet» was the most developed and densely populated regions of this country, and «dry» were the most backward and empty. The population was also appropriate. A simple rural population was more simple-minded, believed Charles Darwin’s satanic offspring, and some of the residents of new York and all, most likely, would prefer to see on the fire, not at the national Assembly.
But we digress, the main thing is that in 1920, the Congress took this ill-fated amendment to the Constitution, which proclaimed the prohibition throughout the country, and even President Woodrow Wilson, was critical to this innovation, nothing to do with him. Although you should give credit to Woodrow: he really tried to change the situation in law and a good understanding of what will happen to the food when you effect this, beloved by many a populist initiative. But some problems he could not even imagine.
The country is flooded with illegal alcohol producers – bootleggers, smugglers and gangsters. It is their time, and their multi-million dollar revenue allowed to do with the police everything.
Well, probably, although the death rate from alcohol was much less, right? No. 100 thousand people in 1928 had 4 deaths from alcohol, although prior to the law was only one. In large cities the difference was even greater. Yet those people who were making whiskey before the law, at least know how to do it, and after the adoption of the technology almost nobody watched. This has resulted in numerous deaths. Another statistic: according to the police in 1920, was arrested by 282 thousand people in a drunken state, but in 1926 – already 664 thousand persons. the Work done was «great»: of the population that previously only drinking soft drinks, is now actively used high degree, do not understand what made. Illegal bars and pubs became even more than legal to the «Dry law», and despite the repression, it was, in fact, do not care about compliance. And people easy to understand: if you had to drink was just a normal thing like eat a sandwich or fried eggs, with the entry into force of the law «to drink» has become such a small riot, maybe even adventure, but if you still have moonshine, which did not deliver strong difficulties, so you’re a tough guy who will have a lot of friends.
Al Capone in Chicago were very happy with the situation. The mafia flourished, and her salary was the police and high officials, and even the guys from Congress. Profit differed from a variety of conditions, cities and time, but on average it amounted to 400-500%, which allowed to be the real kings of the cities, if not one «but». The fight between the mob was considerable, many would like such a warm place that would allow you to earn a lot of money. The structure of the mafia has been completely modernized. If you have memoirs, Nicola Gentile, a reputed mobster who worked as the boss in Pittsburgh, Kansas city, primary unit of organization was ten, it was headed by the master of the Capo. Dozens joined together in a family, which controlled all the activities of the mafia within the same district or city. If some boss was taken to jail, his place becomes Deputy. But the main guy in this criminal organization was Capo dei CAPI (boss of bosses). And if Capo and guide families elected, the boss of bosses takes their power in battle.
During prohibition the mafia was necessary to establish relations not only with the government and police, but also with various other structures. It was hard work and a bit like the government. Mafia established contacts with sailors to engage in the transportation of alcoholic beverages from abroad. Needed contacts with the coast guard, porters, drivers, owners of the trucks. The risk for all these guys was a double, both on the part of police and authorities, and from the warring factions. But money is always a good motivator for such activities, and the business prospered.
For the duration of the law profession, previously unknown to the wide circle of persons. Moonshiner (moon – moon shine – light) – the bootlegger, the secret manufacturer of alcohol that works nights. The bootlegger – the illegal bootlegger. Speakeasy (speak easy – speak softly) – it was a hangout where you can whisper to order a drink, which were disguised as tea or some other ordinary drink.
But by 1933, everyone had become sick of Republicans and their moral and ethical lawmaking. Therefore came to power, the Democrats, headed by the great President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in fact, overturned the law.
However, some States such as Oklahoma, Kansas, Mississippi remained «dry» even before the second half of the twentieth century.
By the way, interesting fact: the party of prohibition, which was created in the XIX century, could not pass the two percent threshold in the election campaigns of his country, which speaks volumes about how much was real, not imaginary support of the population to such a degree.
To summarize, the ban production and sale of alcoholic beverages has led to the fact that this production began to flourish, and to some extent penetrated into the culture. Began to drink more deaths from poisoning with low-quality products also became more. Completely paralyzed the judicial, police and Maritime and freight transport. There was a rise of crime, which formed the American mafia, and laid the foundations for the new challenges that the U.S. government had to face. If before booze mostly older guys, during «prohibition» began to drink and young men and women, as a result, female alcoholism. In fact, the percentage of alcoholics has increased significantly. Earlier people drank in bars, where there was some social constraints on the amount of consumed liquor, but during the raids became customary to drink at home, where there was no restrictions. In General, awesome job guys. Cheers!