The dark art of persuasion Part 1: «Black rhetoric»
Evolution was cheated. Human perception tends to generate the illusion, and consciousness is to succumb to the latent impact. The danger was close. The dark art of manipulation, which penetrated in all spheres of communication, rules the ball an unheard-of scale. Each of us involved in the information war. Any consumption of information becomes a threat.
Sounds ominous, right?
Just don’t panic. Let the enemy everywhere, but we care about you and decided to expose his evil schemes.
In this series of articles we will focus on the protection from tampering, deactivation and destruction. This is useful information for those who are not afraid to win. I hope you of this number? Then in the battle!
«The ability to communicate with people – a commodity that can be bought in exactly the same way as sugar or coffee. And I’ll pay more for it than for any other product» John D. Rockefeller
Since ancient times people possessing the word, was equal to the owner of a powerful weapon. The word can stir people into action, to control them, to suppress the will. Best of all knew about it in Ancient Greece, where to own oratory was every citizen.
Modern rhetoric are eristic (the technique of conducting the dispute), and dialectics (the means of persuasion of the opponent). In everyday communication we use a variety of verbal techniques, most of which are simple and understandable for others. Our urge to communicate is not based on the idea of domination that can be said about fancy speakers, dominate the world.
Language reception in the mouth of the treacherous villain becomes a method of manipulation. When the latent impact on the human consciousness is the aim of the orator, his rhetoric is painted in black color. This character is able to convince in everything from the need to earn a living, the existence of conspiracy theories.
Most often manipulation is beaten on your emotions, values, and logical constructions. Voice attack is finds vulnerabilities in the past. Fortunately, a number of dishonest techniques of influence, of course, be revealing:
1. Black or white
Life is more diverse than it seems. When you offer two alternative result or two opposing positions, know that actually there are many more.
An example of verbal attack: «You are with me or against me»
2. About the reason
I hope you don’t believe in omens. A black cat or a woman with empty buckets – weak arguments in defense of your failures. The brain loves to look for patterns, and this is his weakness.
The manipulator will say that the supposed connection between phenomena requires one event to cause another. Is it really so?
An example of verbal attack: «You made a mistake and it happened», «more with Less revenue», «Coincidence? I don’t think!»
3. So says the majority
To support the opinion of the masses is not cool. However, the method of persuasion in which the argument is based on the thesis that «many agree» is still relevant.
An example of verbal attack: «the Majority can not be wrong», «Millions of people agree with my position, and that means I’m right»
4. Vicious circle
Sense of reception – in the presence of output among the reasons; wicked ploy in which approval is inferred from itself, usually through several intermediate claims. Recursion in a pure form.
An example of verbal attack: «God exists because it says so in the Bible. The Bible is the truth, because it is the Word of God»
5. The appeal to the emotions
Sometimes it is much easier to evoke emotion than logically persuade you.
An example of verbal attack: «the world has so many hungry people and you can’t eat this soup!»
The truth of the assertion for the whole and its parts may be different. We know consists of atoms which almost weigh nothing, but this does not mean that a man is as easy.
An example of verbal attack: «the marketing Department failed plan for a month! In the whole company are idiots!»
7. Standard case
Personal experience is always subjective and debatable argument. This is a small fraction of the truth, not most of it. Admission is based on a true argument, but is not able to reflect the full width of the problem.
An example of verbal attack: «the Election – falsification. My friends and I won’t vote!», «My grandfather smoked five packs a day and lived to 95 years!»
8. Appeal to nature
All that is natural, not ugly. Funny the method that you are especially eager fair use policy. Social Darwinism uncut.
An example of verbal attack: «Survival of the fittest!», «Predators devour each other – that’s the law of nature; as do people in the community»
9. Error sniper
The sense of acceptance in the falsification of events that have already occurred. You shot a bare wall, and then place the bullet holes attached target. Congratulations, everyone thinks you are a good marksman!
An example of verbal attack: «In the first five of the countries-consumers of our products according to statistics, the happiest people live»
10. Slippery track
One of the most common techniques. The assertion that one event necessarily entails another (usually negative). The technique works by skipping intermediate events.
An example of verbal attack: «If humanity continues to emit CO2, life on Earth will disappear», «If you allow the carrying of weapons, it will start chaos and bloodshed»
«Over the last seven years I’ve learned one thing: in any game there is always a predator and there’s always a victim. The trick is to realize that you became the second, and become the first» Revolver 2005
To identify the techniques of black rhetoric more difficult than to use them. Laborious process of exposure is based on the stop of the interlocutor, peresprashivaniya and clarify his words. Black she must be compelled to answer questions to his shaky logic design claims became apparent.
Train in the recognition of dirty tricks is more convenient when reading news texts, the manifestos of all parties and declarative advertising. Just be careful – you for watching!