Sex, survival, food and sex

Sex, survival, food and sex

Over millions of years the status was of vital importance for the survival and reproduction of all animals, has not been spared this business and our prehistoric ancestors. Although social status does not play a direct and specific role in survival for people, but our habits live. This is manifested in different ways. For example, you feel when someone ignores your text messages, right? Or, let’s say you are a coward, and even for the reason – probably it would upset you, no matter how you stone was not. Although think that a few centuries ago, risk-averse men were dead end for humans because their mortality rate was much higher. as you can see, I decided to look at the nature of status with unusual biological side.

Where there is a link between us and animals? As our seemingly habitual behavior helped to increase the chance of successful reproduction and survival? Quite complicated and interesting questions. And although there is no doubt that people are unique, but something tells us that the Parallels between our behavior and the behavior of other creatures demonstrate to us that status is not simply a cultural construct.

Status and survival

Hierarchy is found in the animal Kingdom everywhere. There is even a fun thing called «the order of levania». When a group of chickens living together, they begin to peck each other on the basis of status. The alpha hen pecks beta chicken, beta, gamma chicken bites-chicken, and gamma will bite the Delta. Well, you know. But chicken is not alone in such behaviour. If the lizards do not have enough space for the free settlement and reproduction, they are also, as a rule, begin to establish a hierarchy. When it comes to the more developed mammals, such as rats, monkeys and people, you begin to see a much more complex and dynamic structure status.

However, regardless of the size and complexity of these systems, they all have one thing in common. It is all about resource allocation. Upstairs, the animals get more food, and the animals on the bottom – less. So the best place to survive is somewhere on the top, because there is greater access to food.

To observe the dynamics of status relationships, and the example of newborn mammals. For example, take pigs. The most productive teats the sow – those that offer the most nutrient-rich milk. Typically, these nipples are located closer to the head. Nipples, which are located at the bottom produce much less milk, besides, it turns more watery. Thus, the first week of life pigs are in a daily fight with siblings to get to the best nipple. The hierarchy among the pigs installed with amazing speed. And to change it, you need to spend a lot of fights. However, the mother pigs gives equal opportunity to its descendants. Equal chance, the free market, so to speak. Natural selection.

Animals who are just starting to live on their own, a little fall out of the struggle for status. But as soon as the neighbor of the same species, everything changes dramatically. Large «Dominator» out anything but small – only crumbs from the master’s table, or death.

Moreover, the status determines not only the distribution of food, but also where the animal may be within their community, where to stand and where to sit. And the place of stay has a huge impact on the survival. For example, touch on herd animals such as cows being on the periphery of the herd, the cow is in danger of falling into the clutches of predators, and standing in the middle, has excellent perimeter defense. Guess what the cow can get to the center? Of course, only the dominant.

Thus, dominance promotes survival by rewarding «Alpaca» food, women, safety and security. Like people, animals get «prizes» when their status is higher. Plus, dominance is supported by the active release of serotonin and testosterone, which, of course, is only good.

It is unfair, but works

Such makes sense, because the dominant need the location of the other. They receive food and friends above the norm, stand in a safe place. So why the low status of the animals still go along with them? What are the submissive animals?

For us modern dudes, this behavior was assessed as the percentage of passive loser. But in the natural world animals are much more complicated in this regard. You need to understand who and when is an advantage for survival. If weak animals have decided to fight more and to demand a better food than strong, it likely would be sooner or later dead.

This is not good for survival.

Therefore, the weak accept their place in the hierarchy. They can’t claim the best food they don’t have as many opportunities for reproduction, they have to sit on rear outboard seats in the theater, but they still benefit from what is, after all, if you «omega», your acquaintance with the dangerous world alone to anything good will not.

Nature suppresses rebellious impulse of the animal and causes passivity, reducing levels of serotonin and testosterone. It sounds sad, but this state of Affairs helps to extend the life and pass on their DNA.

This slave system helps and dominant animals. And not just because they get more resources, but also because, instead of fighting between tribesmen that dominate the animals begin to exercise vigilance, their attention is drawn to the outside danger.

All this allows you to live in the system where there is the least number of internal conflicts. If too many chiefs, no society can function properly if too few warriors – the same story. When there is a hierarchy, every animal knows its place and it will be easier to get along with others. If to talk about animals with chicken brains, the dominance seriously cut into the mind. That is, if you kill the «big chicken,» the hierarchy of hens will remain in place, there will be no uprising of the proletariat chickens.

However, if we talk about higher animals, such as monkeys, the hierarchy of status is subject to frequent fluctuations. For example, a primatologia noticed that among chimpanzees is, roughly speaking, the civil war. They have chimpanzees low status combine to forcibly usurp the power of the alpha male. After the new alpha male will take the place of the old one, the latter will begin to show signs of submission.

Status and sex

Status contributes to survival, giving the dominant animals more security and food, while reducing internal conflicts. Outsiders have also found benefits in such relationships: with the team they have a much higher chance of survival than without it.

But, apart from survival, status plays an important role in reproduction. The stakes are especially high for men. If we talk about animals, in most species only a few males among the group have the opportunity to continue offspring. As a rule, these alpha males. It was, for example, one study of lions within a few years. Now, scientists have discovered that some of the prides alpha males were responsible for 90% of pregnancies. Below 50% of the mark is not lowered.

Elephants in General is a Prime example of this phenomenon, and primates too. One colony of chimpanzees kept the group of alpha males which was responsible for 36% of all offspring, the number of dominant males spawned another 14%, i.e. in total Pokolenie females monkeys belonged to a very small group Alpaca.

The same kind of imbalance exists among the people. Most cultures have adopted monogamy as the norm, but in the past it was the practice of polygamy was the norm. A person with a great status in the tribe, had all the possibilities to reproduce. In fact, anthropologists and evolutionary biologists believe that only 33% of our ancestors were male.

Invest in mating

The evolutionary biologists noted that females invest in parenting, and males in mating.

This divergence in parental involvement is not just a sign of man’s selfishness, is the nature – and tell your friend. Oocyte much larger than sperm, do you remember back in primary school. The reason for this is that, in addition to genetic information, the egg also contains built-in material required for the formation of the zygote. There are, roughly speaking, nutrients and energy. Women, moreover, produce eggs quite rarely. For example, your friend will be able to produce from 300 to 500 eggs in a lifetime. But you will be about 525 billion units of semen. In addition to the genetic material, you did not. Only chromosomes and mitochondria, to bring your DNA in motion. You can say that your contribution you can buy in bulk, so it’s not as «valuable» as what is with females. In the end, the girlfriend’s invest more in the already fertilized embryo, and therefore, education.

After conception the discrepancy in parental investment between men and women starts to widen even more. The job of the male is, in fact, ends with the sex. Seed transmitted, then comes in a female. While the growing fetus, the female body spends a lot of energy, so after birth the mother should continue to invest in yourself and your body.

Interest women is that males were healthy and gave birth to a normal offspring. Not enough for them to mate with mediocrity, they want the best of the best. Of course, it is important not only high-quality genes, but also protection and also resources. For example, if you’re a female chimp, you need an alpha male that will provide you greater access to food and offspring.

And the males, on the contrary, it’s not necessary. It is in their interest to distribute their genetic material as widely as possible and females. However, males compete with other males for selected females, because we also need genetically healthy ladies. Men care about the quality and quantity, with greater emphasis on the latter.

In General, females are choosy in partners, males do not damn picky. All this leads to competition when females need the healthy male, and all males need females. Almost every woman gets pregnant at some point, but man can come to a genetic dead end.

This desire for the sex explains many of the traits that we associate with them. We mean the risk of physical force, heavy physical exertion. Some of our friends think that we are worth nothing, but really everything is costly in terms of energy fun. For example, consider the peacock. He has feathers and a loop, at a cost of many nutrients. Giant tail makes the peacock more visible to predators. If survival was the main goal of a peacock, he would have abandoned the flashy aesthetics of the tail. But because women have to leave. If the peacock is large and bright tail, all of them in order. The horns of a deer or elk is such an example. As a rule, females choose males with larger horns, but the horns require a lot of food for growth, and if they are too large, this will reduce the mobility, that is, a male deer loses much because of the horns, but he is willing to take a risk and pay this price to pass on their genes.

We, as a rule, much bigger and stronger than women. Muscle mass requires lots of calories for growth. Moreover, increased levels of testosterone, which is necessary for the creation of the mass itself, hurts our immune functions.


Above, we described the relationship evolution and status. So, perhaps, was a bit sloppy and rough, but I hope that information was useful for you. It is necessary to Supplement it with the fact that the details of this process vary depending on the type and even the environment in any particular period of time.

People, of course, demonstrate their concern status. And of course there are nuances that separate us from the rest of the animal world:

First, the dominance among other animals, as a rule, reduced to size and strength. People, meanwhile, can achieve status not through physicality, but through cooperation with other members of the species, creativity, knowledge of their field, genius.

Secondly, people do not belong to the same community. You can be «king» in the city, but a total failure in another. This distinguishing feature of man.

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