Psychoanalysis: Freud and his brainchild
There is a discipline within psychology, which mostly gets unaware from the basics of people. And this discipline is called psychoanalysis. Why such a negative attitude towards her? You might say: «Freud sees all members! And the world does not consist only of members of the hell!» But in reality, psychoanalysis is much more than just settling personal psychological problems to sexual issues. And we think that if the Institute of psychology and, in particular, the Institute of psychoanalysis was more developed in our society, the problems would be much less.
A small argument about our hospitals. In Russia to get Into a psychiatric hospital for observation is very simple. One you there, of course, will not delay, but if you show ingenuity and inventive’ll talk to the doctor, you will certainly be able to get at least you need a tablet or even a bed in the hospital. What’s your disorder, hysteria? So write, write him a couple of packs of those yellow pills. So you’re bummed wheels, and many it is because of them and go to such places. Only depart the course, and then take a prescription. And here you have a recipe that is valid for a year or more. If you’re a jerk, you can get hooked on that shit and turn into a vegetable, if not, it will be indulged and will throw. Maybe this story is out of place, but in it lies the main problem – the lack of psychological assistance in Russia at the appropriate level, and as a result the introduction on tablets people who do not need them.
Psychoanalysis is remarkable that he does not use medication, and its result largely depends on the efforts of the patient. The discipline rests on the Foundation that was laid by Sigmund Freud. But the current state of psychoanalysis differs significantly with what Freud said. Theory and practice developed about a hundred years, much wcreplays and branching to the flow. The best minds of his time such as Alfred Adler, Carl Gustav Jung, Fromm, Jacques Lacan, worked and reworked the idea of Freud. Appeared monumental concept that is now subject to criticism, but which no doubt work, as evidenced by the practice of many psychoanalysts, including in Russia.
This psychological theory was formed in the late XIX – early XX century, as mentioned earlier, Sigmund Freud, who, incidentally, was a neurologist and had a well-deserved reputation as a connoisseur of the human brain. Many critics of Freud it is unclear how he, a respected scholar working in the field of physiology, histology and neurology, he suddenly launched at 180 degrees in the direction of psychoanalysis, which has long been considered almost a charlatan and a tambourine dance on bald mountain. Initially, Freud used the normal time for therapies: electrical stimulation, massage, hydrotherapy, etc. But serious results he achieved through them could not. Soon Freud experienced the technique of hypnosis to suppress traumatic memories of the patient, as in the case of Emma von N. But in 1896 he abandoned hypnosis and suggestion as a primary therapeutic tool. From this time he began to develop his concept, is complex, if it is viewed superficially. But suffice it to say that a major step forward was the method of free Association.
Without exerting any pressure, the analyst invites the patient to lie comfortably on the sofa, while he sat on a chair behind him, out of sight of the patient. He even asks him to close his eyes and avoids any touch as well as avoiding all sorts of other procedures that can remind them of hypnosis. The session, therefore, there is a conversation between two people equally awake, but one of them refrains from any muscular action and any distracting sensations that might distract him from his own mental activity. To master the ideas and associations the patient asks the analyst to allow him to enter into such a state as if they were talking aimlessly, incoherently, at random.
Sigmund Freud‘s Numerous works of Freud more reveal the essence of the new methods that formed the basis for future discipline. Important is the interpretation of dreams; the thing that used to vestal and the priests of the ancient world, now is common for a psychoanalyst. It is believed that dreams are a manifestation of the unconscious and hidden motives of certain actions, so, their interpretation will help to solve the psychological problem of the individual. Separately it is worth noting that the importance of the personality of the therapist in successful treatment of the patient are much higher than the usual doctor. Between him and the patient should be structured in an open relationship, which may not be Intrusive, but be sure to be trustworthy. Therapist in a sense, needs to assume the role of teacher, educator and spiritual father. If the patient is upset, it can lead to a rollback of all the work a few steps back.
The beginnings of psychoanalysis has not passed without wars. Freud was met with stiff resistance in every conceivable circles, both scientific and social. Not surprisingly, the public was shocked by some of the theses of the new science, and physicians were brought up on totally different principles. They recognize anatomy, physiology and chemistry, but was far from just mental. Hypnosis was considered cheating, and hysterical neurosis – simulation. And perhaps in this period of the history of medicine and made some important discoveries, but she also walked quite a wide area, which was not associated with a mechanical approach to the problem. In the end, psychoanalysis could not take any doctors at the time, nor the philosophers, for this science has occupied a place somewhere in the middle and absorbed the thoughts and concepts of both parties. And conservative society of the time could not calmly accept the fact that sexual attraction, according to the new theory, was almost the main engine of society, and not only that the neuroses owe to the lack of normal sexual satisfaction, but also the culture, religion, social order is based on the sexual beginning. Of course, for the people of that time it was perceived as something offensive.
But by the 1920s, at the time of revaluation of values, recognition of the work of Freud still had a place to be. In 1908, in Salzburg hosted the First international psychoanalytic Congress, and after 2 years at the Second international psychoanalytical Congress was founded the International psychoanalytic society, which exists to this day. In Russia, a Russian Psychoanalytic society, which, unfortunately, was subjected to persecution during the Soviet power, along with other best minds of the Empire, engaged in evil in the party Sciences.
It is worth remembering the main provisions of the psychoanalysis:
human behavior, experience and cognition are largely determined by internal and irrational drives;
– these impulses are predominantly unconscious;
– attempts to realize these desires lead to psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms;
– in addition to the structure of personality, individual development is determined by events in early childhood;
– conflicts between conscious reality and unconscious (repressed) material can result in mental disorders such as neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression and so on;
– the liberation from the influence of unconscious material can be achieved through its realization (e.g., with appropriate support).
The modern condition of psychoanalysis accommodates more than 20 different concepts of human mental development. Approaches to therapeutic treatment is also different.
But now there are many opponents of this theory, though a sufficiently large number of people are patients of psychoanalysts and feel the beneficial effects of their methods on myself. However, we should still distinguish two groups of opponents of the discipline. The first group is those people whom we conventionally might call the conservatives, who refuse to accept the fact their animal nature, their as before annoyed by the increased attention of psychoanalysts for sex, they indignantly perceive the theses, which say that in children in some form of a sexual attraction. The second group is part of the scientific world, their concerns are far more grounded. Basically these people complain about the unprovability of psychoanalysis, which automatically makes it impossible for the psychoanalysis of scientific understanding, and therefore, discipline may be pseudoscientific.
Here are the words of one of the opponents brainchild of Freud.
Psychoanalytic therapy is in many ways based on the search for what probably does not exist (repressed childhood memories), an assumption that is probably wrong (that childhood experiences is the cause of the problems patients) and a therapeutic theory that has nearly no chances to be true (that the translation of repressed memories to consciousness is essential part of treatment).
Carroll, G. THowever, let us remember that we should not trust any private thoughts to the moment, not yet familiar with the subject of the discussions themselves. And this will help you books of Freud and the work of his disciples and modern psychoanalysts.