Peace, labor, may history of may day and May 1
Feast binds strongly to us out of the city, warm days, eating barbecue and entertainment area. As a rule, very few people know about the history of the phenomenon of feast, moreover, few know that this history is tightly connected, as with the pre-revolutionary Russia and the illegal gatherings of the workers, and with the ancient goddess Maia. All very confusing.
The month of may was named after the ancient goddess of Italy Maya, who symbolized fertility and vitality of soil, crops, plowing the fertile soil and new crops. The first day of the month was labor day, abundance, and warm days turning into hot. The better celebrated these days, the better the harvest will prepare the people of the goddess. In fact, such celebration was almost all the peoples of Europe, the Slavs — is no exception.
The history of may day before the revolution
XVIII the nobles introduced the fashion picnics in the European manner with the first warm may days. Graphs and other secular people went to the countryside, where he sat with tea, tobbacco and Goodies under tents and on the grass. Free citizens, paranomasia lifestyle of high-society persons, also selected for the city, but the scope was much smaller. The fashion for such celebrations introduced, of course, Peter I that borrowed this tradition in Russia has moved to the Europeans, who continued to celebrate Walpurgis night: in the night from 30 April to 1 may.
The may day tried to give the Orthodox the content. The Church has established may 2 as the day of memory of saints Boris and Gleb, but the holiday still for many years remained profoundly secular in the condition of the nobles and citizens. The peasants celebrated may day as the day of the prophet Jeremiah, they called him «Jeremiah-suprageneric».
For a long time on 1 May was a local holiday, celebrated mostly in Central Russia. In most parts of our country, the holiday was a work day. But where it was celebrated, it was called «noon»: all enterprises and departments worked only two days. If the weather was cloudless, the inhabitants of Central Russia took balalaikas, samovars, pre-cooked food, bagels, all members of the family and went out of the city. Young people without families gathered in groups and celebrated the occasion separately. The most popular places for may day: Bank of the river, the woods, the forest. In Moscow, the people rejoiced in Sokolniki, sometimes in Mar’ina Roshcha, at the beginning of the twentieth in Petrovsky Park. In St. Petersburg the most popular place was considered Ekateringofsky Park. Fun Russian people almost until late at night, despite the fact that she had to go to work.
From the largest cities may day gradually moved to the province. The celebration took place in major cities (Kaluga, Samara, Petrozavodsk and others) and large industrial villages.
May day was a holiday for all, but as everyone said it differently. For the nobles feast was another way to get people to show off their rich dresses. Citizens went to the city to show off their outfits and eat. But, most representatives of the peasantry, workers and other poor people. This segment of the population may day loved with all her heart and never missed. Perhaps such love is due to the small amount of happiness in the life of working people.
Feast and policy
During the reign of Nicholas I, covered any suspicious and unsuspicious organized clubs and gatherings of people illegal may day became under partial ban. Of course, people could visit the popular places to celebrate, but the illegal charges are not encouraged. At the same time, in the mid-nineteenth century, revolutionary movements rise up illegal may day, where future revolutionaries-professionals. In fact, this may day was no different from ordinary folk. The revolutionaries sang songs and proclaimed a new Manifesto, shared underground literature. Attended their workers, intellectuals, the petty nobility and students. The latter were especially numerous. Performed such may day in dense forests, was invited there just checked. In fact, it was a fun Congress of revolutionary-minded people to bring together and discuss plans.
In the revolutionary environment may day quickly became an International workers holiday. This name was approved by the first Congress of the second international. Why this date was determined to celebrate? In honor of commemorating the strikes of the workers in Chicago on may 1 1886, These workers on strike in Chicago on may 1 1886 demanded from their employers to establish 8-hour working day.
As the international day of solidarity, may day was celebrated may 1, 1890, when in Warsaw there has passed the first workers ‘ strike, which left ten thousand people. In Russia the may day strike was held after a year in St. Petersburg, but collected only a small number of people. In Moscow, the first celebratory demonstrations took place only four years later. A. Lyadov, Russian composer, watched one of the demonstrators pulled out a red banner with the inscription «long live the First of may!», writes: «needless to say that this is just a simple red calico, but the ink is derived the inscription: «long live First of may!». You hear a mighty Bang! The first free «cheers», they felt free».»
After what happened in Moscow the revolutionary wave took over Russia. May day held in big cities and small towns and villages. Conducted May 1 in Russia in different ways. Someone was actively clashes with the police, someone was strike someone, all was peaceful and quiet. Of course, the feast was held in the traditional form: revolutionaries, far more numerous than 50 years ago, went into the woods and on an island of rivers, where she sang «Dubinushka» and read the manifestos. In 1899, at one such meeting was invented by the song «may day» which was very famous in Soviet times.
However, to carry out the may day was not just the gendarmerie in those years was very strict. Revolutionaries had to pretend to be family members and old friends to meet and to discuss their Affairs. Police find it difficult to determine travel with these cultural workers to rest or relax revolutionary. People are decent in appearance, appetizer, wine, vodka, even the samovar and accordion in there, no different from normal people. Some revolutionaries managed to hold their meeting in the monastery in the apartment of a deacon!
In 1905 — 1906 in demonstrations seen more and more young people. Political prisoners are also celebrating the first of may: they were hung on the prison bars red pieces of cloth, red clothes and singing revolutionary songs. Of course, such behavior is not considered the norm. In 1907 the leadership of one of the Samara prison was required to remove the red flag from the Windows of the prison, but inmates are strongly refused. Fight prison guard shot and killed one of the rebels.
Farmers enthusiasm to May 1 showed, despite active desire of the rebels to accustom people to such an occasion. Of course, the revolutionaries won over to his side some people, but the majority continued to think that May 1 is a nice mysterious holiday that promises a bright future. Until 1917, may day became a national holiday, the country’s leadership had to make her working day.
May day and the Soviet Union
After the October revolution, May 1 has become one of the most important Soviet celebration. It made a «red day calendar» and added several non-working days, to more to please the people. In the USSR, the holiday was celebrated by the whole world, colorful demonstrations and parades. In the demonstration was attended by veterans, the best workers, students, military and other people. 1 May is celebrated by festivities, but the number 2 may is celebrated with family and friends in nature. It was a return to the traditional may day.
In the era of Brezhnev stagnation», when actively disseminated bard festivals, KSP and leisure on the nature in tents for the majority of people May 1 was the beginning of the tent season, although special fans of outdoor recreation went into the woods in March. The holiday has become, despite the demonstrations, it is absolutely apolitical and back to basics — labour, the fertility of the world. Many researchers believe that the Soviet Union may day was wearing a first extension of the subtext.
The latest official may day demonstration took place on 1 may 1990. In 1992 the holiday was renamed «the Holiday of spring and labor», which is more in keeping with the spirit of the time, but the political subtext in may 1, left: until now the opposition in Russia considers it his duty to hold demonstrations and rallies on that day.