Military ethics: shame, taboos and violence. Part IV
We continue to talk about the ethics and morality of wars of different eras. Today we have the most brutal and dirty story – the Second world war. World politicians should once again review the results, to push the world into a new disaster.
The second world war had a huge impact on the fate of humanity. It was attended by 72 States (80% of the world population). Military operations were conducted in territory of 40 States. The armed forces were mobilized 110 million people. Total casualties reached 60-65 million people, of them were killed on the fronts of 27 million people, many of them Soviet citizens. Also large human losses suffered China, Germany, Japan and Poland.
After this war, Western Europe has ceased to pull the world in the puppet thread itself became a puppet of the two superpowers. Finally, the balance of power in the conventional sense of the word has changed after the war. Leaders have faded into the background, and the fate of the planet began to happen in a big country beyond the ocean and the superpower, decomposed on two continents.
Yet never has a country spent so much on military spending. The losses amounted to 4 trillion dollars. Material expenses reached 60-70 % of the national income of the belligerents.
Processes and violence
But it’s all the nuances of economic, we are also interested in the ethical. But the principal moral result of the war were the Nuremberg and Tokyo processes. Political regimes had previously been condemned, but never on this scale. It happened that the king and the members of the government beheaded on the guillotine, it happened that the ruler of an enslaved country and sent to prison or to the hereafter. But never until now the world community gathered in a circle to condemn formally still independent States, namely Germany and Japan, as well as their active functionaries for specific crimes committed during the war.
Of course, the brutality of the regime is reprehensible and cruel court. But, in fact, all of these processes were nothing like the court winners. After all, remember what happened after 43rd year, when the balance of power has changed and a large army marched across Europe, fascist buddies in her nest? If you remember the «good» man by the name of Ilya Ehrenburg: politically incorrect genius of Soviet propaganda urged the Soviet soldiers to destroy the enemies without forgiveness.
We understood: Germans not people. From now on word «German» for us the most terrible curse. From now on word «German» discharges the gun. Not going to talk. We will not be indignant. We will kill. If you did not kill the day at least one German, your day is gone. If you think that you Germans will kill your neighbor, you do not understand the threat. If you don’t kill a German, a German will kill you. He will take your [family] will torment them in their accursed Germany. If you can’t kill a German with a bullet, kill a German with a bayonet. If your site lull, if you’re waiting for the battle, kill a German before the fight. If you leave the Germans to live, the German will hang a Russian man and disgrace a Russian woman. If you kill one German, kill another – there is nothing more fun for us German corpses. Do not count days. Do not count miles. Think of one thing: the Germans killed thee. Kill the Germans! – it asks old mother. Kill the Germans! – it begs you child. Kill the Germans! – it screams native land. Do not miss. Don’t miss. Kill!
– Ilya Ehrenburg, 1942 –In Germany, Ehrenburg still consider responsible for the death of 2 million civilians. But let’s not forget that his Manifesto Ehrenburg wrote in the 42nd year, when the Germans were advancing on Stalingrad and the Caucasus, and other words, it was difficult to expect. However, the call to not kill the enemy, not fascist, it is German – that’s what bothered the German-speaking personalities. Although it looks like a poem Simonov, the so-called «Kill the Germans», and the story of the Nobel laureate Sholokhov’s «the Science of hatred». However, it is foolish to assume that those mass atrocities, which were civilians, were the result of only one of propaganda.
War of the human person is not and can not be, because angry «liberators», ozverev from the endless blood, raped literally to death by Germans, Hungarians and other «fascist litter». Violence has always been, and women were often pawns in the competition of men’s cruelty. Besides fueled propaganda. Goebbels with his friends firmly instilled in the hearts of the people of the strong opinion that Russians are animals, brutes, and it is better to commit suicide than to meet them face to face. This is partly because, as evidenced by the mass rape and looting civilians. The Soviet soldiers was taken raped German women by the group, often to death. The command was categorically against, so as not to compromise the image of the soldier-liberator and to somehow rein in the brutal blood and flesh, the army shot and arrested by soldiers. Pretty strange situation, especially because they themselves have sinned. The Soviet major stated at the time, the English journalist: «Our comrades so starved for female affection that often raped sixty-, seventy — and even eighty years to their Frank surprise, not to say pleasure».
«Carthage» Flaubert, not otherwise. The horror that is destined to last forever. Many girls have completed suicide, but would not be captured by the invaders. Especially high was the percentage of suicides in Berlin, where they were raped up to 140 thousand women.
When raped by a resident of Konigsberg begged their tormentors to kill them, the soldiers believed themselves insulted. They replied, «Russian soldiers do not shoot women. So do only the Germans». The red Army had convinced himself that since she took on the role of liberator of Europe from fascism, its soldiers have every right to behave as they please.
The writer Vasily Grossman, a war correspondent in the advancing red Army soon discovered that rape victims were not just Germans. Among them were the polka and the young Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, appeared in Germany as a displaced workforce. He said: «Liberated Soviet women often complain that our soldiers rape them. One girl told me in tears: «It was an old man, older than my father.»
Some women, unable to endure the shame, committed suicide. Some, especially in the big cities, looking for the patronage of the officers, becoming their mistresses. It is better to humble ourselves before one another than before the drunken crowd. Sometimes these relationships developed into friendship and even love that only aggravates the situation «friends».
However, let’s not forget the allies, the Americans also tried its soldiers for misconduct. 70 soldiers have been sentenced to capital punishment. Often, however, the Germans themselves gave the Americans their honor for food and cigarettes which the soldiers had in abundance.
Thus, the German women were made responsible for the crimes of the Wehrmacht, but behave like fascists themselves? No better. Cases of rape by the Nazis in the occupied territories was no less rare. Although the guide is highly recommended, and even forbade the soldiers to enter into an intimate relationship, especially with the Slav. First, the worthless Aryan to indulge the flesh with inferior races. Second, because the military hospitals were full of venereal patients. Indeed, the British, the Germans, the Japanese, the Russians on all sides, the hospitals were filled with victims of love. It is not like the leadership, because «the fronts are not enough people, and they in hospitals are cooled so turpentine ass prick».
But however exhausted without female affection soldiers happy he came into contact even with Jewish. Some women voluntarily joined together in a link – exactly the same story as in Germany. However, these women much less fortunate, because instead of the Germans returned native men, and to forgive like it was very difficult. In the Soviet Union they were shot for complicity. In France and the Netherlands these ladies shaved their heads. Tired of the long years of occupation, the French took out their anger and complexes on these women. About 30 thousand girls suspected of having links with the Germans, were subjected to public humiliation. So often to settle personal scores, and many of the most active participants in the so tried to save themselves by diverting attention from its cooperation with the occupation authorities.
Often shaving the head is not stopped, drew in a paint a swastika on the face or carrying a brand on his forehead. There were cases of lynching when girls just shot. Many, unable to bear the shame, committed suicide.
But another facet shamefully silent for decades: children born to German soldiers. They were twice rejected: as born out of wedlock and as the fruit of communication with the enemy. According to various estimates, in the same France was born more than 200 thousand so-called «children of the occupation», but oddly enough, the same French treated them most loyally, restricting only the ban on German names and the German language. Though there have been cases of attacks by children and adults, many mothers refused, and they were brought up in orphanages. In one of the stories of Somerset Maugham, established in 1944 («Unconquered»), the main character kills his child, born from a German soldier. This is not fiction – such cases have also characterized the time.
In Norway, these girls were about 15 thousand and the five thousand, who gave birth to babies from the Germans, was sentenced to one and a half years of forced labour, and almost all children with the filing of the government declared mentally incompetent and sent to a home for the mentally ill, where they were held until the 60–ies.
Our country is such a nightmare too concerned. The exact number of births from the Germans was unknown, these data were preferred to hide. Even soldiers returning home, prefer to educate their offspring, knowing that the disclosure of the terrible secrets, faces death and disgrace. And what to do, because most of the women were raped. Here’s an oppressive hopelessness.
By the way, in Germany today there is a legislative norm according to which children of German soldiers, born to French mothers are entitled to German citizenship.
But back to our «processes». Despite their ambiguity, in the history of the world was fit experience when violent crimes committed in the war, be subject to international judicial scrutiny. You can continue a long argument about how actually this works, as far as he is selective and effective. But the idea that cruelty in war can be a crime against humanity and perpetrators can and must be condemned, now seems ordersdelete principle (at least in theory).
Yet another sad fact of the Second world have become concentration camps. And they are not confined to the German horrors of Dachau and Buchenwald. Some of the young country, about a perceived fascist ideology, enthusiastically destroyed thousands of poor people, including children. For example, a cozy little Croatia, pitched their curves border on the Adriatic sea. As they say, if you want to know what the p..er, learn the relations of the Balkan countries, especially former Yugoslavia. The fact that Croatia was called the Independent Croatian State, in which the rules of not loving the ustasha regime. The ustashe were known for their love for the destruction of everything Serbian. Especially loved taking photos with severed Serbian head. But completely his bloody imagination they brought to the concentration camp Jasenovac, was engaged in the extermination of Gypsies, Jews and Serbs. According to various estimates, in the camp were killed about a hundred thousand people. Especially Croatian guys liked to host competitions in speed killing «servicecom» – a special knife, which the firm Zolingen produced for the needs of Croatian friends.
The Germans chose to destroy the poor in the ovens and gas chambers, mostly children and the elderly. Someone is lucky more, and they went to concentration camps, where at least there was a chance to survive. However disgusting conditions and forced labor dramatically reduces these chances. And emaciated, skeletony body of prisoners was one of the testimonies of the Nuremberg trials.
Science on the bones
But the most disgusting and yet the ambiguous fact of military history began human experimentation. What is their ambiguity? And in that hell, without them, medicine would not have made such a powerful leap forward, in particular research in the area of the brain malaria treatment (for which pre-detainees infected with a nasty plague, in consequence of which exactly half have died), experiments on the effects of pressure drops, converting sea water to drinking water cost the lives of hundreds of Roma. Especially notable was the legendary Dr. Josef Mengele and the Japanese «unit 731», examined the influence of insects, anthrax, cholera and other nasty things over Chinese, Russian and Korean prisoners.
By the way, because of its geographical remoteness of a Japanese terror are rarely mentioned. However, the war in the Pacific, where he observed the French and the Americans and even the Soviet Union, was no less interesting.
But if you ask any Chinese what he thinks of the Japanese, believe me, his attitude will be much worse than ours to the Germans, because the Japanese destroyed 19 million Chinese that didn’t fit in, who shamelessly massacred, executed EN masse and let the experiences, few deserve it. Moreover, the Japanese terror began already in 37-m to year and finished only 45th.
World war II gave the planet a great technological leap in terms of weapons. The game was conducted on the total destruction of entire peoples, and therefore detail was not assumed. You can start with the famous «gas vans» – mobile gas chambers, which use carbon monoxide has killed civilians. Can and biological weapons, which was not as effective because as soon as developed, but being used, especially the Japanese side. And finish possible nuclear weapons, which became a «gift» of war. The fact that humanity now has the technical strength that allows you in an instant to destroy hundreds of thousands of lives, perhaps for the first time joined the ethics and pragmatics in the assessment of what the war turns into something unacceptable in relations between the two countries. When it comes to being able to threaten the very human civilization, the contradictions between the ethical and technocratic assessments of the war erased. Some fear the use of nuclear weapons as a «doomsday device» led to the fact that, despite the fact that the main managers of the nuclear arsenals of the cold war – the USA and the USSR, as well as other overt and covert owners of these weapons have invested a lot of money in the statement adopted all of the new devices, they nevertheless never have the nerve to use it. And initiatives for nuclear disarmament have consistently had a much more vigorous public support than General talk about the renunciation of weapons at all.
The sad result
It was a war without morals, war without violence, a war of extermination. Dirty and bloody, her spot was the deliberate destruction of the civilian population, and experiences of abuse. Women, old people and children, millions were killed in Hellfire. Some of them had the courage and luck to stand up to fight. The children blew up the trains, the women went to the guerrillas. In the book «war has no female face» of the latest Nobel laureate in literature Svetlana Aleksievich describes the guerrilla who drowned her baby in the river, so he is not screaming from hunger and did not give herself and others, hiding out in the swamp guerrillas. However, many have killed themselves and their children to escape the fate of being brutally, painfully and shamefully straightened.
However, went to the soldiers. Torture, concentration camps is not the worst. Worse, that soldiers used as cannon fodder. Originated distrust of sleek and well-fed military leaders forced many to desert. The war took place, the writer Viktor Astafyev in the letter one General recalled how foolishly, foolishly bosses killed soldiers. The chiefs did not reckon with human losses, detachments and tribunals were forced to look for bayonets. The price of victory is set forth by the mountains of severed limbs and lifeless broken bodies. Therefore, the image of a Soviet General who gives «brave», according to writers, and stupid, according to the soldiers, orders, wearing polished boots and clean uniforms, aroused the hatred of the soldiers, but only some.
It wasn’t better and after the war. In our country many, who was in captivity in the second round were sent to concentration camps, this time domestic, Soviet, where working conditions were no better. Workers don’t have enough, that’s handy for prisoners. Less fortunate with disabilities that are in impossibility of employment were forced to become beggars. They have been even tougher. At one point, all the «samovar» (the disabled without arms and legs), legless, armless, and the blind were collected and taken to the camps to the North, so they do not spoil their appearance and wretchedness» of the country of the winner. This is the price war that has erased all boundaries and limitations. Someone scolds soldiers: how was it possible to exterminate civilians? But the soldiers were just following orders. And to blame entire Nations, which allowed murderous regimes to power, it is not necessary. If admitted, so was reason. Maybe people are too weak, scared and stupid? Who knows, but in the history of absolutely everything and absolutely everyone will be rewarded according to merit. Especially the very civilian population.