Military ethics: shame, taboos and violence. Part III
Continuation of the legendary series. If you haven’t read the previous parts, then run!
The first half of the twentieth century met the world of assorted civil wars, collapse of empires, the booming of totalitarian regimes, two World wars, between which it took only 27 years old, and the ensuing mountains of human corpses. War proceed on the principle: «In the scorched desert easier to build a new order.»
I would like to write about each war separately, but unfortunately, they are very individual in its bloody terrible ugliness. I would like to write about the military achievement of the First world kipisha, but, unfortunately, the use of tanks (for the first time in history) did not affect morality. But there were many other interesting things.
Chemical horrors of war
First World finally killed all the crumbs honest and chivalrous, which remained in the concept of war. War is always immoral, but that is so – this guess is that the Huns ‘ leader Attila. But even he fled from the battlefield in your favorite desert, dirty mothers of civilization, the devil and God of War at the sight of the miraculous power of chemical weapons. If in the past century, chemical weapons were treated as innocent children’s fun, after 1915 all realized that the world will never be the same again. The idea is to use the war gas was due to the impasse of the trench war, which by 1915 became the First world war on the Western front: the opposing party looking for ways to penetrate at least a small dent in a solid line of defense from the North sea to the Swiss border.
Endless Hiking hungry, exhausted soldiers with one full of water and rats of the trench to the other (and literally had to crawl through mud, not to be ignominiously shot ahead of time) led to numerous deaths and stupid butting of two castrated rams in the European mud. But in April, 1915, that all changed after in the heart of the Belgian city of Ypres the Germans first used chlorine attack. Seeing the looming cloud and notably porygon mucus and pieces of light, soldiers with lightning speed and without delay left the trenches. Who did not – never in a hurry. The soldiers were in shock, Germans are uncommonly proud of myself, and the Entente have picked up new arguments, the image of the Germans in the way «enemies of mankind». However, the «noble» allies itself soon cynically and without any reproach of conscience «righteous minds» began using chemical. That’s probably why she did not consider it as a violation of the Hague conventions. Although, the results of the Hague conference of 1899, all the participants pledged to renounce the use of shells with poisoned substances. But the Germans found a way out: renouncing shells, they used the IP exclusively in gas attacks, as nothing about them is written brilliantly and simply.
It should be noted that your chance to break through the breach after the attack at Ypres, the Germans lost. Ran subjects of the British Empire in gas masks and with wet gauze, and successfully threw «the hated Teutons».
Surprisingly, the chemical weapons were not the most deadly. His victims were only three percent of the total number of deaths on the war fronts. However, the principle of etching the soldiers out of the trenches like rats from holes, caused outrage among leading humanists of the world. Some time ago, social networks were actively Parcelas the story «attack of the dead» – counterattack of the 13th company of the 226 regiment Zemlyansky, which went to the counter, harried awful chlorine. This point was really, however, he was highly decorated. None of the pieces of light on the go do not spit out, and in flight the Germans didn’t rush, because he knew that the weapon kills not all.
In 1925, with the signing of the Geneva Protocol the use of chemical weapons was prohibited. This is probably the first time in the history of mankind, when, except for some incidents, the ban on the use of an entire class of weapons was successful and lasts so long. Thank God, no one dared to argue with his immorality.
In the trenches and behind them
World war of 1914-1918 led to the collapse of the European world that we know from the XIX century. Along with her radically changed the attitude to war in Western culture. This is partly because by the realities of trench warfare – the worst part of it. The front stood on the spot, and already began to seem that the war will never end. And it’s not actually moving. And the life in the trenches was like a dream of claustrophobic: in the absence of active hostilities, the soldiers spent their days in deep cracks that stretch across half of the continent, dirt, damp, atmosphere of despondency in anticipation of a possible death. If they were not at the observation point or firing position, not seen for almost nothing, except for the strip of sky above him. Even the enemy, and he was not seen. Only at night, some groups could lean out of the trenches to repair damaged structures. Entertainment questionable, life-threatening, but at least some variety.
The most bizarre feature of the front was the location of the rear. Sometimes in cities is nothing like it on the war. And this sharp contrast between the space where people for months and years live underground and are periodically slaughtered each other, and others, the old world, begins at arm’s length, was too brutal and convincing model of the senselessness and inhumanity of war, influenced the mood of the generations had similar trench experience. Unfortunately, in this addictive, and this proximity of the front to the rear, almost everywhere, and no surprise. Apparently, the next step will be the routine murder of children in their beds.
Soldiers in the mud, and generals in the palaces – it has always been. But in this war, uncontrolled society began to look at it with derision. Perhaps, it was particularly common was the attitude of the generals and generally to the rear of the boss as a soulless bloodsuckers. In the Russian army to the question: «Who is our enemy?» – every soldier answers without hesitation: «Unutrennimi enemies we have four: staff officer, quartermaster, storekeeper and a louse».
But the saddest result was the brotherhood of soldiers – a sad experience, traumatic psyche is not worse than a bullet injures a skull. After the war, this particularly active wrote almost all writers Remarque, Hemingway and even fought Hasek, and posmeyalsya over the generals and the war over «good soldier Svejk».
Alcohol, drugs, Foxtrot
Another syndrome era began medivcine like bacteria in a purulent wound, cocaine and morphine addicts. And on both fronts. Then there’s the drugs called the medicine, and «lovely morphine,» what was in the chests paramedics, were especially popular. But not like alcohol. Drank everything and drank in the black, even despite the introduction of prohibition. Rubbing alcohol and moonshine poor peasants became the main outlet for grieving soldiers. Here, for example, describes the retreat of Russian troops from the woodland in 1915.
Warunki Vasyuki, Garasaki… the air smells of fusel oil and alcohol. Around distilleries. Millions of buckets of vodka produced in ponds and ditches. Soldiers drawn from ditches that dirty slush and filtered it on masks masks. Or surrendered to a muddy puddle, drink, go APE, to death. The earth is soaked with alcohol. In many places, enough to make a hole, dig a heel in the sand, so it was filled with alcohol. Drunken regiments and divisions turn into a gang of looters and all the way satisfied with looting and riots. Especially abound in the Cossacks. Sparing neither sex nor age, they bleed white all the villages and ruin of the Jewish towns… Drunken revelry takes wild size. I drink everything – from soldier to General staff. Officers of the alcohol released buckets and buckets and buckets. Each part comes up with all sorts of reasons for the device’s official drink.
As stated in a soldiers ‘ proverb, «without women and wine war is not the same!» That’s why the soldiers responsibly tried to dispel this well-established axiom. Among the soldiers spread pornographic postcards and photos, which in large quantities were sent from France. Many of the officers wrote letters to their wives and girlfriends every day, numbered them (on a 300 rooms or more). The censor noted details of these letters in which no Marquis de Sade didn’t think of that.
But the wife, she is away, and the flesh need to entertain. Here the soldiers were given a painful lust with prostitutes and residents temporarily employed population. And, of course, rape of local residents, rather residents. The horror of war will not go away. Another thing is that he became popular.
Dramatically increased the number of sexually transmitted diseases whose spread in the army compared with typhus. Many of the sick not only not ashamed, but was proud of his illness and continued to have a sexual adventure. And among who was engaged in was not only soldiers and officers but also priests, doctors and even nurses. Simply put, in those days a fine line between «angel on the battlefield», which pulls you out of the clutches of death, and dirty prostitute has significantly worn off. In Warsaw, for example, was in the hospital up to 300 sisters and a few priests.
Scornful and consumer attitudes towards women in the First world war as a «means to satisfy the sexual needs of men» was formed as a result of the sexual revolution that was raging among the active marginal masses. All before you could say out loud was frowned upon.
In the Russian rear
As for the Russian army, no pleasant memories currently have left. Moreover, the population of Austrian cities occupied by Russian, literally exhausted from the Cossacks. Daring other guys furiously robbed, raped and drank. Of course, such sins were seen by all, even the doctors, but the local Cossacks recalled with redoubled fear.
But Russian soldiers was something to be angry about. From their villages came disturbing news. Stolen prisoner, like a beast, «Austrians» (among whom was untermenshi Slavic origin like Rusyns, Slovaks, Czechs, poles) were used in the chores in the villages, lived with the soldiers ‘ whose men were at the front. In letters from the front and on the front it was reported that «all women betaine prisoners by the Austrians lived,» that wife, «as the chain broke, adultery prisoners by the Austrians in full, this is happening, that the house disgusted», «syphilis and other venereal diseases flourish», that «some girls want to get married for the Austrians, they have face stuff and then slacking».
The soldiers demanded from the clergy and the generals «curb» stupid women, but a decree according to which it was necessary to immediately stop the sexual international, helped very little.
The result of «moral decline» and sexual promiscuity during the war became grim statistics of sexually transmitted diseases in Russia, 3.6 million men and 2.1 million women.
So, the First world war, and, alas, not the last. Of course, many problems, especially moral, have encountered before, but never on such a scale. And the saddest, and the Austrian, and the hare, and Romanian, and the French, and the Germans were absolutely identical problems. It was a spider romp in which even soldiers are not ever felt so disgusting.