Is there life on other planets
Is there life on Mars? No it? Who the hell knows. Science is desperately trying to prove to us, and especially myself that we are not alone in outer space. Not only crazy and participants of «Battle of psychics», but Nobel prize winners in physics, including Mr. Hawking, as one claim that the only inhabited planet in the Universe – is absurd. Indeed, many of the planets, and all without meaning. But among the public there are those which allegedly come these pranksters, leaving patterns in corn fields and make agents Mulder and Scully to seek the proverbial truth that somewhere.
Before we start, explain one formulation that is often found in the text. It is called very simply – the Earth similarity index, it is not difficult to guess the index of suitability of the moon or planets for life. So, good reading.
1. Kepler 62e
We’ll start with this planet, because at the moment she has the highest Earth similarity index is from 1.00 to 0.83. However, an interesting planet is not that, and the fact that this may be the first known to man. Just like in the movie Kevin costner, but instead of bizarre pirates, boys with gills and other mischief blue expanse of ply to the face of terrible, good inside but marine reptiles like marine worms or Naga, known to mankind from the Hindu mythology and Warcraft 3. Who knows, maybe the Indians from having started to read «zmeelov» that those in his time on the space tablet made a visit of friendship to brotherly India. Who knows.
Kepler suffers from excess water due to the proximity to the star. Probably the entire surface of the globe is the sea with rocky bottom. Yes, in my head the images from «Interstellar». The dimensions of this vast water area is unknown, but where more Land. For example, the largest of the oceans – the Pacific – would be on it only a small region, because its area is larger than the area of the earth’s land area combined.
It is believed that the animals on the planet sad and gloomy, because Kepler 62e even a day shrouded in darkness. A star in the constellation Lyra, around which revolves the planet, shines five times weaker than the Sun. The year is 122 earth days. Kepler 62e one and a half times older than the Earth, so if there is life, she had a lot of time to develop. Maybe the local civilization has reached such level of development, which will be limited to the earthly pleasures of the human imagination. With our planet a hypothetical water world share neither more nor less than 1200 light-years. In other words, today we see the light reflected in Kepler 62e, as it was in 815. Year, by the way, unremarkable except for the fact that on 1 April the Patriarch of Constantinople was the Iconoclast Theodotos. How do you get this information?
2. Gliese 581g
Gliese 581g is one of the most popular planets that bear the proud title of «Potentially habitable».
Informally, this planet is called Zarmina – the name of the wife of the scientist, who opened it in 2010.
Zarmina orbits around the red dwarf Gliese 581 in the constellation Libra at a distance of 20 light years from Earth, much closer than Kepler 62e. Turns out, they now have a 1995 year: all over the world there are terrorist attacks in Yugoslavia has been ravaged by war,and Alice in chains released latest album.
The similarity index, the planet Gliese 581g is 0.82, that is, there is possible the existence of intelligent life in the form in which we understand it. Once again I remind you that intelligent life can represent something that goes beyond the imagination of earthly mind. It is assumed that Carmine there are rocks, water in liquid form and atmosphere. However, don’t rush to pack your bags and freeze myself until, while on the planet would not open, aiming to get away. Life on this planet harder than the conquest of virgin lands.
Because of the proximity to the star Zarmina, rather, rotates around its axis in the same amount of time in which comes full circle in its orbit (by the way, the same thing happens with the Moon). The result is Gliese 581g all the time turned to its sun, one side. On one side reigns constantly freezing night with temperatures up to -34 °C. the Other half shrouded in red shadows, since the luminosity of Gliese 581 is only 1% of the luminosity of the Sun. However, on the day side of the planet can be extremely hot: up to 71 °C. the Oliver stone would say, «Hot as in Vietnam.» Due to the difference of temperatures in the atmosphere Sarmini likely constantly raging hurricanes. In a word, it is easier to go to New Orleans. Consistently every couple of years you will carry the next element, but comfortable climate.
Year Sarmina 10 times shorter than the earth and is only 36.6 earth days. Want birthday consistently in a month? When this planet is significantly bigger than Earth and the gravity on it is stronger than familiar to us in 1,1–1,7 times. Man weighing 70 kg on this planet would weigh from 77 to 119 kg. If the Gliese 581g has life, in order to survive the madhouse that reigns on the planet, its inhabitants should be lighter and smaller inhabitants of the Earth. Involuntarily recall a little Eddie Murphy «Meet Dave.»
However, one scientist has already said that Carmine can live sentient beings. In 2008, when it was not yet open, Australian astronomer, Ragbir Bhathal was seen in the area of the planet flashes, reminiscent of the laser light. Not only as the Sith have rebelled. However, it is likely that the Indian astronomer visited just a squirrel, because no other such outbursts did not notice.
3. Gliese 667ss
The namesake of our previous heroine, Gliese 667ss, revolves around another red dwarf star in the constellation Scorpius – Gliese 667s. From the Sun it takes a little longer distance – 22.8 light years. The Earth similarity index, this planet is equal to 0,82.
Star, orbited by a planet belongs to a triple star system and a planet awash in the rays of «glory» two suns orange dwarf Gliese 667A and Gliese 667B. Just like Mayakovsky: «a hundred thousand suns…» According to scientists, Gliese 667ss gets about 90% of the energy the Earth receives from the Sun. However, despite the bright light from the three star «floodlights», the average temperature on the surface of the planet, probably only 3 degrees below the average temperature on Earth and is 9°C. Scientists speculate that in this case the Gliese 667ss may exist primitive forms of life.
However, it is possible and more sad, perhaps because of the proximity to a triple sun, the planet’s magnetic field great hurt, and stellar wind long ago tore off her water and volatile gases, as the last hope for life. In addition, there is the hypothesis that life in the systems of double and triple stars cannot arise in principle even more unstable conditions than in Tajikistan.
From the perspective of earthlings, the main problem of the planet, may be its dimensions: the mass of Gliese 667ss higher than the earth 4.5 times. Gravity is stronger than Carmine (that is, the earth will kiss, so that will not come off and will lie all my life), and even shorter – only 28 earth days. In addition, like Zarmina, this planet is constantly turned to the star on one side. In reddish heavens above this world Shine at the same time the three suns. However, hope dies last. I don’t know what the delight of communion with the primitive space creatures, but suddenly we love them as his children. Unless, of course, it’s not evil bugs from «starship troopers», is burned the three suns.
4. Tau Ceti
Tau Ceti is one of the closest to Earth stars with a potentially habitable planet in orbit. Science fiction writers like to describe it as most suitable for life. It is located from us at a distance of only 12 light-years. And that was on the Ground 12 years ago? Pugacheva has not gone from the stage, Putin had more hair, but no one remembers what a pager is. The Earth similarity index, her planet Tau Ceti is 0,77.
Star Tau Ceti is similar to the Sun, but the planet is closer than Earth is to its sun. Because of this it is very hot and is ruled by His Majesty the Greenhouse effect. Turbulent dense atmosphere, similar to a cloud cover of Venus, poorly transmits light but warms up well. The average temperature in this sauna about 70 °C. Under these conditions, in hot water and on the banks of ponds there are probably only thermophilic bacteria. Well, I will give them time to develop. Year in this world is equal to 168 days, and gravity should significantly exceed the earth, because the mass of the planet is 4.3 Earth masses.
5. Kepler 22b
Planet Kepler 22b is located around the star Kepler 22, between the constellations Cygnus and Lyra. Star smaller and cooler than the Sun, but the planet is closer to it than Earth is to its star, so the average temperature here can be quite reasonable – 22 °C, as in some Rome. Year here is more reminiscent of the earth of 290 days. That is why the Earth similarity index, the planet is very high and 0.75. Distance – 620: Tamerlan hurts and kills all who cut and killed, however, his opinion did not touch the Movement, making tired of the slanted evil Russians thought that virgin was denied a bloodthirsty ruler to go to Russia and advised to cut the Horde.
We don’t know how much it weighs, Kepler 22b, but if this planet is similar to ours, then the local gravity is to the earth problem. It is 2.4 times bigger than our usual size. This means that the suit weighing 90 kg here would weigh 216 kg, and the person will not be able to move. Overall a great choice for a reasonable life of little men.
However, some scientists believe that Kepler 22b is similar to Earth and thawed Neptune. For planets where life should be it’s too big. If these assumptions are correct, then Kepler 22b differs little from the namesake Kepler 62e – a giant boundless expanse of water under a thick layer of atmospheric gases. Of viable planet this, however, does not change: according to experts, the existence of life forms in a planetary ocean «beyond the possible», that is, the same Naga clever and charming whales can build underwater cities, resent the dominance of hairy mountain minnows, to use an underwater wi-fi and taking photos of their gills.
Rocky earth-like world with konovalovym name circling an orange dwarf star in the constellation of Sails. The force of gravity on the surface of this planet only 1.4 times higher than the earth, and most importantly-there with the big share of probability can be liquid water.
Is the potential refuge for «brothers on reason» in 36 light years from Earth, that is the planet in 1979-th year. It was a good year! The album «The Wall» Pink Floyd, «Highway to Hell» AC\DC and in theaters furtively touching myself under Caligula, fond of stomach worms in «Foreign» and beat the muzzle under «Rokki-2».
The planet itself is immodest overweight and weighs as much as 3.6 Lands. If a beginner to move into our system, it is located a little farther from the Sun than Venus, but closer than Earth.
It may seem that on the surface HD85512b too hot. However, astrophysicists have calculated that moderate cloud covering 50% of the planet’s surface (for comparison, the average Land – 60%), would reflect into space enough energy to in the world established more or less a comfortable temperature, allowing liquid water exist.
The clouds themselves are also assumed to be water, and the atmosphere of a planet similar to earth, that is, nitrogen and oxygen. But this is all speculation based only on the location of the new corselli relative to its sun, the mass of the latter-day world and the known regularities in the formation of planets.
On the other hand, HD85512b has two more factors speaking in favor of the potential habitability: almost circular orbit (as is well known, the circular orbit is = a stable climate) and great age. The system is 5.6 billion years, in contrast to our Solar system about 4.6 billion, enough to develop life, and it could be assumed that activeingredientname enraged celestial observers with his appearance on the horizon, and were among the illegal immigrants who were persecuted by the Men in Black.