Innovation in the blood: inventions that became popular through the First world
Throughout its history mankind has killed their own kind, and no end is something invented. These two aspirations is connected in such a terrible and strange things, like war. Commercially viable for some and terrible for others — she has always been the impetus and stimulus for the invention of something new. And it didn’t have the guns — so we got a lot of money, which I use to this day. Many of them have faded into obscurity, if not for the war.
Not so long ago we marked 98 years since the end of world. Despite the fact that in our country, for obvious reasons, it receives much less attention than even the war of 1812, it dramatically changed the history of mankind. And how much effort she left!
Even before the outbreak of the First world war, a small American company Kimberly-Clark made of cellulose fibre wool material with a very high degree of absorption. It cost cheap, and as it turned out later, the demand was like for bread. Especially clear it became in 1917, when the United States entered the First world war, Kimberly-Clark began producing dressings at a speed of 100-150 meters per minute.
But the nurses of the red cross had their own plans for the magical material. War is war, but the menstrual cycle has not been canceled. Here were dressing at all other needs. But before they had to use scraps of fabric and just change sheets.
The enterprising Americans did not despair. After the war the demand for wool has fallen sharply, because the bandage was no one but the news about the misuse of the material has reached the guide. Spending hundreds of thousands of dollars on research and experiments, they finally produced a sanitary napkin 40 of the thinnest layers of cellulose wadding, wrapped in gauze.
A new product dubbed Kotex (short for cotton texture» — cotton texture). On the shelves, he came in October 1920, after nearly two years after the signing of the armistice agreement.
The idea of the translation arrows on an hour forward in spring and back one hour in the fall existed before the First world war. It was proposed in the mid-nineteenth century, the ubiquitous President and inventor Benjamin Franklin. Even then he noticed the inappropriate expenditure of candles in the hours when it would be possible to sleep, and the reverse situation, when they could work.
But since the issue was purely economic in nature, that in time of war, suffer from a shortage of certain resources of the country began actively to fill it with confusion in the lives of citizens.
First this step went to Germany, which lacked coal. In April 1916 the government ordered to move the arrow from 23:00 to 24:00 to the next morning, all woke up an hour earlier and saved an hour of daylight. A little later example of the worst enemies the British went, and it went on, until the U.S. entered the summer until the end of the war.
Since then much water has flowed, osvistali a lot of bullets, and some countries refused to change the time, and some introduce a rule, then cancel it at the 25-th circle.
It is believed that the first tea, Packed in small sachets, was to send their customers an American tea merchant in 1908. Truth or legend it is impossible to know. But the first who realized the idea of mass production was not the British or the Americans, and the Germans, whose company Teekanne used the method, supplying troops teabags. The soldiers called them «tea bombs» and could not get enough of such simple and brilliant way of welding. Indeed, in the flooded trenches quite difficult to find the place, the desire and strength to make tea.
Contrary to popular belief, the wrist watch was not created specifically for the military. They were before, but it was after the war entered into widespread usage. All the more reason to boast of gold-plated shell locket and feel the master of life, if the majority of the planet believed that much more impressive to demonstrate a pocket watch? But when you’re sitting in a trench and you need to execute the command or to carry out simultaneous maneuver at a certain time, to go into a pocket is problematic. Error in a few minutes, the hole punched guys killed. And wrist all just tipped your hand already know what time it is. The war can not delay, it is necessary to be proactive.
As a result, every fourth soldier had wristwatches, and by the end of the war the number has increased significantly. Soon pocket watches gone, and all began to show off their expensive wrist.
Some brands of watches, which have become a symbol of luxury and prestige, have their origin from the First world war. For example, the model Cartier Tank company was introduced in 1917 by the French master Louis Cartier who created this watch, inspired by the new Renault tanks.
The famous British Sheffield has always been famous for its steel. These are the masters of this city, we are obliged forks and numerous household items made of stainless steel.
The problem was that the barrel of a gun under the influence of high temperatures and friction starts to deform. Here and metallurgists think about steel, which transcend high temperature. According to legend, many of the experiments ended in failure, and the rejected bars were in the scrap heap. But later, someone noticed that some of them could not be rust.
During the First world war stainless steel was produced new engines, and later spoons, knives and forks, and later surgical tools, which in crude huts and under the influence of blood mercilessly from rusting.
The active use of aircraft
The plane was a very promising platform for the deployment of weapons, it immediately became clear how it is there. In the first air combat pilots, and we tried to knock each other with pistols, but then, this idiocy was abandoned in favor of machine guns, which were mounted above the cab. However, the aim of such weapons captured by driving the pilot was difficult. But then the mechanism associated with the engine, and in 1915, these flying fortresses were on the side of the Entente.
In fact, it was the First world showed the effectiveness and benefits of the aircraft, which gave rise not only to civil aviation development, but the first thoughts about the implementation of the plans of space flight.
A blood transfusion
That you can drain the blood from one person and inject it into another, they knew before the war, but then this was only possible directly on site, so as to keep the blood did not know how. And only in the First world people are smart enough to add in blood potassium to prevent clotting and dextrose as an energy source.
The first know-how Americans have experienced and the Belgians, and thereby saved thousands of their soldiers from certain death.