François Duvalier: Haitian elect of the gods
In our opinion, too many good men were in this category, but the world is not limited only to them. So this time the hero will become the real bad guy is. There is on this planet just cinematic villains, which is almost impossible to find in real life, but sometimes still appear. And sometimes fortune allows them to take the Supreme power into their own hands. Is it possible to assess the dictator in ethical way? We think not. Especially if his story is long over, and the country, which he directed, is now fighting with other troubles of the modern world. In General, welcome!
Haiti, of the twentieth century. The same poor and lifeless country, as now, overshadowed by a variety of cults, chief among which is the cult of Voodoo is quite a scary thing for a foreigner: a macabre blend of African paganism, Catholicism and the worst prejudices of a black man. Total poverty and total mental instability of Haitian society. As is usually the case in these republics, power is changing almost every few years, the usurpers succeed one another, and the weak democratically elected candidates are simply unable to survive in such a suffocating meat grinder. With this turnover of power, and such coups, it was hard not to expect that once the presidency is the man who will be so to know your people and is so smart that to push him out is unlikely to prove someone’s strength.
So, the future President was born in 1906 in Port-AU-Prince, capital of Haiti, which was founded in the EIGHTEENTH century. He grew up in a family of a teacher and a journalist, and in 1932 he received his medical education at the University of Haiti. At this time American troops were on the island, in fact as invaders. Now, the young françois worked in the service of the occupying forces, performing their medical duty. When the American troops left, he engaged in personal medical practice, and then again together with the Americans, but already in 1944. All the division of the Caribbean into spheres of influence was not in vain, in this way, Haiti was under the jurisdiction of the American government, by which françois came to power.
After teaching at the University of Michigan (USA) under the program «health Organization» of the case Duvalier went up the hill. In 1946 he was appointed Deputy Minister of labour, and later as Minister of health in the government of Dumarse Estime, who famously was the first black President in Haiti’s history. General election Estime President is quite an important political event, but after only 4 years, the ruler was overthrown by a military junta. Estime as the teacher of mathematics was also a teacher of françois Duvalier, which is reflected in their friendly relations. Lucien Estime, wife Dumarse, recalled that the future of «Papa Doc» young called her husband a spiritual teacher.
During the reign of the junta, our hero remained in hiding, he often changed the location of his stay, fearing for his life. Life in hiding was so hard, because quite a long time it was held by neighbors – brothers Jumelles, whom he then shot. At this time, Duvalier was reading books, he especially liked the novel «the Emperor» Niccolo Machiavelli. It is hardly possible to say that the future dictator was illiterate and a stranger to the European style of thinking. Education he had, and knowledge was said that a man from the provinces, he clearly was not.
Further events worthy of the most intricate political Thriller. The junta did not, and for an armchair of the head of state turned quite a tough fight. There were three candidates, one of whom was one of the brothers Jumelles. The weakest is considered the Duvalier, but he could not miss the opportunity. No one took seriously, Francois, and even for the reason that he was a Negro. Therefore, the main favorite of the elections was a mathematician Daniel fignole the third candidate. Of course, democratic elections were not the Foundation on which I would like to build their own state Duvalier. He conceived a cunning plan, and to implement Pinhole agreed to do the interim President, but encouraged him to appoint the commander of the army of his close friend General Kirby. A little more than two weeks of Kirby publicly arrest Finale and forced to hold new elections. They, of course, wins Duvalier. He wins absolutely, but how else, when the inhabitants were driven to the polls at gunpoint?
Our hero, or rather villain previously positioned himself as a Democrat, but as soon as «Papa Doc» was in their hands the power, all democracy has vanished. Established a brutal police dictatorship, where any enemy is destroyed physically. With the advent to power started the hell for residents and fun for the broken power of the villain, and the fun lasted 14 years, until the death of the dictator.
His methods of government called «paradoxism». It is strange that the world community turned a blind eye to its savagery, however, is not surprising, because the policy is very selective, and the regime that was loyal to the States, it is currently acceptable to all except the ordinary citizens of Haiti, of course.
For these simple inhabitants Papa Doc created an extensive system of concentration camps, and his associate – General Kirby – was the main tool for destruction of unwanted. By the way, those thugs who have brought the power of françois, and became the Foundation for future formidable, the TONTON macoutes. This organization consisted of a mixture of strong of all the most depraved and unprincipled people of the state. Their name owes Creole myth of uncle TONTON, who walked with my big bag at home and took him all the naughty children. TONTON-makuty played the role of the Haitian guard, and not subordinate to the military command, and was like themselves, under the auspices of the President. They also fulfilled the role of the police and security services. Businessman Butch Ashton argues that the training of this guard engaged the U.S. Marines, but we find it hard to believe it’s because their actions are more like the actions of a wild crowd, robbers who kill their own people, but not soldiers, obeying a strict command to achieve specific goals.
They kept at Bay the entire population of Haiti, and they felt awe, mainly due to the fact that the formation of actively used woodwillow and occult symbolism that strikes fear in the illiterate residents of a banana Republic. Their number has always been in the range of 20 thousand people, and their victims were, according to some data, about 60 thousand inhabitants of the country, hundreds of thousands of people without their participation was in exile. They had no form, no distinctive marks, except that they sometimes wore white robes and always wore sunglasses so no one saw their eyes. People acted differently, that is very ingeniously killed: stoned, burned alive, drowned, skinned, pulled from the inside. Some thought they were doing their victims a zombie who, after working for the benefit of the regime. Their main goal was to destroy any opposition to his master, Pope Doc, but came under attack almost everything, including the color of business in the country that didn’t want to give their money voluntarily. They are not funded through the budget of the country, they supported themselves by looting the local population.
And the money was needed. Corrupt system has grown so that it needed new funding to support it. The economy went into decline, and literacy was around 10%, the others could neither read nor write. The situation was complicated by the fact that at the moment of coming to power, Duvalier immediately deported to their country a huge crowd of people and even the priests, who did not want to pray for the new President. He also banned political parties, closed the opposition Newspapers and dissolve the unions. In 1964 Duvalier declared himself President for life, although live it was not so much. He has built around himself a cult following, with great pomp, and with numerous titles, a list of which we can’t show you:
The unquestioned leader of the revolution
The Apostle of national unity
A worthy successor to the founders of the Haitian nation
Knight without fear and reproach
Great elektroizmeritel shower
The big boss of Commerce and industry
The Supreme leader of the revolution
The leader of the third world
The guard mistakes
But everyone just called him Papa Doc.
The attempted overthrow of his government was the place to be. Once part of the Navy opened fire on the presidential Palace. But Voodoo magic, or the American authorities failed to protect his protege. Although we can not say that relations between the Haitian sorcerer and the US administration was completely friendly. Everyone understands that kind of person, but believed that it is better to have a controlled monster than an uncontrolled democracy. Papa Doc often got handouts from the state, which had to be spent on the development of the country, but Duvalier chose to spend them on. When the authorities came to Kennedy, he decided to cover the bench with a bloody dictator, but as we all know, Kennedy was killed by a bullet Or Oswald. And shortly before it the President of Haiti publicly made a Voodoo doll that represented American President and defiantly began to pierce her with needles. Thanks to such combination the power of Papa Doc, only strengthened, and the States again began to provide a «sorcerer» money.
During the reign of Duvalier, the Voodoo cult reached its climax. His professed almost the entire population of the island, but mostly blacks. Duvalier claimed to be a Voodoo adept, and called himself a priest of this religion Loa. He was subjected to changes in national symbolism: the color blue was replaced by black. As a result, the flag has acquired a combination of red and black that represented the influential sect of voodoo, Bizango. Francois himself was always wearing a black suit with narrow black tie, the so-called clothes of the Baron Saturday. Many of the residents of Haiti and in fact thought that they are ruled by a dark deity.
Baron Saturday is a Loa, who announced his patrimony sex, death, procreation. His symbols – the coffin, the hat, tails, together, the attributes of the undertaker. The first grave in Haiti always dedicated to Harrow on Saturday. Well, a famous holiday day of the Dead is a celebration in his honor.
In General, a strange way for choice, if you think our perception. But for the residents of Haiti, it produced a hypnotic effect, and of course, Voodoo is one of the pillars on which rested the power of Papa Doc. Duvalier died in 1971, his funeral was furnished with great magnificence, influential followers of Voodoo were among the guests. After the dictator left nothing but devastation, his place was taken by son, Baby Doc, who, however, could not hold the power in their hands, but was able to steal $ 800 million and leave the country.