Citizens of Earth: the genius of Russian cosmonautics
The earth held many of their students and daughters and sons into space. For many generations of astronauts were human ideal – heroes conquerors of the area about which we know little, bold and courageous. Still in school essays children write that dream to become astronauts. Therefore, in the category «Heroes», especially on the eve of cosmonautics day, we could not write about those who really is a hero. So we shall mention only a few national «citizens of Earth», which has contributed to the development of cosmonautics and in some ways was the first.
Living legend of the world of space exploration this year will mark 80 years since the birth of. But looks – God forbid everyone. Apparently, exposure to weightlessness has its advantages. Simple comes from a family of Kemerovo miners have come a long way before becoming a world famous astronaut. You know, astronauts have to pass well, very serious training before they are allowed to surf the cosmic expanse. While in the Soviet Union in the proverbial arms race to become the representative of his country in outer space was twice as difficult.
The hour struck Leonov in 1965. Man in space was no longer news to anyone. However, this man was inside the ship and stood there for a few minutes. And just like that, adult to, as in «Gravity,» out in open space – this has not happened. Leonov flew with Pavel Belyayev as co-pilot on a spaceship «Voskhod-2». During this seemingly routine flight, the young astronauts came up with a brilliant idea (or rather, it came from MCC): go into space. As they say, the first pancake is always lumpy, and the first entry of man into space nearly became fatal for him. The suit began to grow rapidly, and increased to levels that began to hamper the return of the astronaut to the ship. But a Soviet officer, such trifles do not scare, so Alexey Leonov do not get confused, managed to bleed the air out of the suit and return to the gateway.
But this adventure Belyayev and Leonov did not end. Got on the head of the commander – comrade Belyaev. Before boarding denied automatic orientation system, and manually oriented the spacecraft and turned the engine brake. In the «Voskhod» made an unexpected landing in 180 km from Perm. In the TASS report, it was called rise in the «reserve area» which actually was deaf Perm taiga. And since taiga – the terrain is harsh and difficult, tired of the congestion and not used to zero gravity, the astronauts had two more days to conduct one in the wild forest in the freezing cold. Only on the third day they broke through the deep snow, the rescuers on skis that were forced to cut wood in the landing area «Sunrise», to clear the landing pad of the helicopter. Incredibly challenging flight, which could be astronauts the latter, however, instead, 12 minutes and 9 seconds in space, glory and honor.
As the astronauts flew every year, the next flight had to wait for 10 years, and in 1975 he performed the second space flight as commander of spacecraft «Soyuz-19» program, which everyone knows by the name of old cigarettes «Soyuz – Apollo».
By the way, the hero from the first group of astronauts (Yes, he could be the first astronaut Gagarin is) loves to draw, and even released 5 art albums and more than 200 drawings. And draws everything from portraits to landscapes of distant galaxies. Indeed, the talented person – is talented in everything.
Valentina is the epitome of the right of Soviet major-General with a strong character, will, and eyes that seemed to approve of a nuclear war, something like: «take heed, Americans!» Maybe that’s why she seems so unsympathetic, as Margaret Tatcher. But her heroism is beyond doubt.
The first female astronaut was selected long and carefully. Take into account not only physical preparation, but such an important fact as the origin: the country of the Soviets it was always beneficial for a career born in the family of workers. Oh, and most importantly, astronauts, especially those who have done something in zero gravity for the first time that went into space, dangling without a spacesuit, etc., to return to the Land was a «wedding General» – a man who traveled the country and the world and tells stories about flying, about the glorious party of Lenin and conducts active public work with the «eagles of Ilyich» and the like. And because of all the other contenders In Tereshkova the language skills of the advocate were developed better, the choice fell on her.
The flight took place on 16 June 1963. Everything was in General good, except for the state of the Tereshkova. She barely moved rather sluggishly, and liaised with the MCC. Women that they take. Despite the nausea and physical discomfort, Tereshkova endured 48 revolutions around the Earth and spent almost three days in space, which led the logbook and made photographs of the horizon which were later used to detect aerosol layers in the atmosphere.
Now the first female astronaut all is well. She is still cheerful, and when you look at her property, too, want to become a cosmonaut. However, we must remember that you need to have at least the balls of steel. Valentina Vladimirovna they were, and whether there are they at you?
The great Russian scientist, philosopher and thinker who gave the world the hope that out there beyond the stratosphere will soon be able to visit people. Tsiolkovsky is a mysterious person. The child had been ill with scarlet fever, little Kostya deaf. And as you know, for handicapped people people are not particularly stretches. However, he was able to compensate for the lack of hearing its truly curious mind. Books were his best friends, so at age 16 he went to study in Moscow, then the capital, but also the city in General is quite good. However, life in a big city was very expensive, and the young Tsiolkovsky had to go back.
Being far away from major scientific centers in Russia, Tsiolkovsky, remaining deaf, decided to conduct their own research interest area – aerodynamics. He began with the fact that had laid the foundations of the kinetic theory of gases. He sent his calculations of the Russian physico-chemical society in St. Petersburg and soon got a response from Mendeleev: kinetic theory of gases has already opened 25 years ago. But Tsiolkovsky was quite surprised, but continued research. In St. Petersburg became interested in gifted and extraordinary teacher from Vyatka and invited him to join the aforementioned companies.
And then there was a series of discoveries, research and other troubles. His life is not quite easy. The suicide of his son, the flood, which swept away into oblivion hundreds of calculations and physico-chemical society did not appreciate his achievements. And, seemingly, anybody would not learn about his calculations, and space flight would lay for years to come, but there came to power the Bolsheviks, who was very interested in the controversial research scientist. The government even provided him with considerable material support. In 1919 Tsiolkovsky was elected to the socialist Academy (later the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), and November 9, 1921, the scientist was granted a life pension for merits before domestic and world science. In 1936, perhaps the outstanding thinker of the 20th century, who managed to beat the time, did not. But still heritage, thanks to which the world has made a leap forward, and the sky furrowed by aircraft.
Without this man there would be no Day of Cosmonautics or space holidays. The life of the Queen was no more difficult than the life of Tsiolkovsky. The founder of practical Astronautics inherited from the Soviet regime. In the 30’s a young talented engineer was accused of sabotage and sent to labor work. They say that during the interrogations the NKVD people with a special love broke both his jaws, so that all his life he had a defect. He ordered firing squad, but later changed his mind and, realizing what a talent to lose, sent to the closed prison of the NKVD, where he under the leadership of Tupolev designed the bombers PE-2 and Tu-2 and simultaneously developed projects managed aerotrade and a new version of the missile interceptor. Using talented designer so bestial way, in 1944 it fired and almost immediately assigned to the development of ballistic missiles. The creation of a two-stage Intercontinental missiles was so successful that the Soviet government hastened to use a talented designer on all cylinders. However, the king was happy, because doing things you love.
The next step was the creation of the first satellite, which began sailing in 1956. However, the Soviet government demanded not to stop and almost day and night were the development of the first spacecraft sent to the moon and delivered a symbolic pennant (the inhabitants of the moon were very impressed – a gift of which they dreamed).
Well, then triumph – the flight of Gagarin, to which the king was treated as a son. In General, Sergei Pavlovich very warm attitude to all the astronauts from the «first group», but the charm of smiling Yura was so strong that he personally for the Queen it was agreed. German Titov is also ideally suited for this role, but Gagarin’s smile was sincere and the origin easier.
Korolyov died in 1966. Through the patient, exhausted, to the end of his days were consumed with work. His life was pretty battered, squeeze all the juice that could be in that powerful body. However, he considered himself a happy man because doing what I loved. Thank You, Sergey Pavlovich, without You nothing would have happened!
We celebrate the Day of Cosmonautics 12 April because on this day, in the distant 1961, Yuri flew away… and came back.
Now they say: «Yuri, I’m sorry, we’re all about..!» For such, you can easily apologize and Tsiolkovsky and Korolev. But we still think about Gagarin. With all due respect to the other astronauts, Yuri Alexeevich – the symbol of space exploration. In truth, the only person in the world that is impossible not to love. He was loved by the whole world, even Americans. Fidel and Che Guevara called him his brother, not for show, and political leaders around the world marveled at the «man out» which, despite all the greatness of the moment, was in a life very modest person. Even the Queen of England fell to the charm of the first «Citizen of the Earth.» Unnecessary show-off was alien to him, for even in his space, by the standards of Soviet reality, sports car Matra-Bonnet Jet VS he did not like to travel. Too much attention attracted.
His fellow astronauts as one, swear a sincere love for good Jure. He was a funny guy, nice and was joking. However, sometimes abused, but who it offended. But then, as one, wrote on the wheel of the bus, incl. connecting to the launch pad. Yes, Yuri A. urinated on the wheel, and the other astronauts made it a national characteristic of Russian cosmonautics. American Shepard, too, was wet, but in the suit, which once again proves the sense of the Russian pilots.
However, Yury Alekseevich did not like the position of «wedding General», and he sincerely wanted to once again fly in space. However, the government did not want to risk the lives of the brightest and most positive business cards of the USSR. Travel the world and meet with total adoration, of course, good, but above all the Soviet pilot. A Soviet pilot in his Prime it’s not good to sit idle. Gagarin all worked, kept himself in shape and prove that you ready, but tragic, shrouded in mystery death of ‘ 67 crossed out all the plans, and the second time to hear the legendary «Go!» we failed.
But we remember You, Yuri, and once again we apologize for the fact that all about….
The first Chuvash cosmonaut, the first man who made multiple flights, and this flight (which the public was informed only a few decades later) carried out the first military experiment involving astronauts in orbit on the programme of creation of the interceptor of satellites, the «Vostok-4», piloted by Pavel Popovich, playing the role of interceptor, and Nikolayev piloted «Vostok-3» of the target. Also during flight first experiments in radio communication between the crews of two ships in space, made the program of scientific-technical and medical-biological experiments. In short, first in all, though, for which astronauts now and send. Above it was decided to put a very tricky experiment. Then nobody knew, what will the being in orbit without a spacesuit. Nikolaev showed that everything is fine. Now, of course, you won’t see astronauts orbiting in heavy ammunition, and then it was a novelty.
By the way, for a long time Nikolaev was married to Valentina Tereshkova, the first marriage between people of such an unusual profession. However, did not last long. And we wrote that it is not necessary to build a family with a work colleague.