Burn them all!
Jesus taught that no one should be persecuted for something that has an opinion different from his opinion. But the first followers of Christ seem to have missed the Covenant on deaf ears, because medieval priests had a rather definite relation to the freethinkers. From the time of the First Council of Nicaea, which took place in June of 325, finishing with a decree issued twenty-eight years of Emperor Theodosius, which stated that heresy should be treated with fire – lots of big understand evil government, fell victim to the Holy Inquisition of the fair. You probably know about the sad fate and the persecution of Giordano Bruno, Galileo and Copernicus, but today we want to dig deeper and tell you about the scientists, philosophers and poets who ended his days in excruciating agony redemptive fire.
1. Pietro d Abano
Pietro d Abano was an Italian philosopher, doctor, writer, astrologer, and possibly alchemist. Of course, such a versatile personality could not remain without attention of the Church. After his training in Padua d Abano went to Constantinople, where he studied the Greek language and where he remained until about the year 1290. Then, in 1300, inclusive, he lived and studied in Paris, where he received a doctorate in philosophy and medicine. In the capital of France Pietro made many useful contacts, which later partly saved his ass from the inquisitorial bonfire. Its richness and fascination with astrology has become fertile ground for the spread of rumors about witchcraft. Evil tongues say that «any money that d Abano pays out of pocket, and then magically return to it back into the purse» and this is black magic, not a sharp mind, perseverance, and talent have led d Abano to success. In the end, all those hysterical stories attracted the attention of the noble and fair-minded representatives of the Dominican monastery of St. Jacques in Paris, was charged with witchcraft and heresy against Pietro. Acquitted at the first trial, d Abano was charged again: this time he put in reproach, «the denial of the existence and influence of spirits and demons to man.»
The scientist died in prison awaiting sentencing, and the Inquisition was deprived of the opportunity to burn his body, as friends d Abano, apparently, someone very generously paying, dragged the corpse from the prison and buried. But don’t underestimate the length of the hands of the inquisitorial court, because the latter decided to make and a demonstration to burn an effigy of the scientist. But it was not enough that his books were brought to trial again 40 years after his death. So Pietro d Abano was found guilty, his body was exhumed and burned.
2. Cecco d Ascoli
Cecco of Ascoli was an Italian poet and physician, was taught mathematics and astrology at the University of Bologna in 1322 and from 1324 year. They say that Cecco often talked to by Dante, having with the author of «the divine Comedy» a hellish controversy, discussion and debate. The first step on the slippery slope d Ascoli had done when he wrote a commentary on the work of John de Sacrobosco, which outlined a number of unusual theories that relate to the employment of demons. The result Cecco received a penalty of 70 euros and the order to seek repentance through prayer and fasting. To avoid sentencing, d’ascoli moved to Florence in 1324, but it was not the best idea, because here he’s made a lot of ideological enemies. Philosopher Guido Cavalcanti and doctor Dino di Garbo, the fastest time raised the charges against the scientist of heresy, and Cecco d Ascoli was again found guilty. In 1327, at the age of 70 years old, he was burned at the stake in Florence.
3. Meister Eckhart
Johannes Eckhart, commonly known as Meister Eckhart, was a German theologian and philosopher who generously shared their wisdom with the students of Dominican schools in Paris, Strasbourg and Cologne. He also did not hesitate to teach people from poor families – or for free or for a nominal reward. Such willingness to work with the simpletons aroused serious suspicion of the Church authorities, and finally Eckhart was falsely accused in connection with begarde (a religious order, who taught that those who will attain perfection, will become sinless). For the first time Meister Eckhart was summoned to the inquisitorial carpet in 1326 for the Franciscan Archbishop of Cologne, Henry Virneburg. He died in prison a year later, in 1327, before his case was formally presented before the court. However, Pope John XXII during this time had to issue a bull condemning 28 of Eckhart’s articles as heretical. The irony is that the fate gave John a heavy karmic kick: the Pope himself was later condemned as a heretic.
4. William Ockham
English Franciscan and one of the outstanding philosophers of the middle Ages and did not complete his studies of theology at Oxford, but managed to give the world a number of important works, because he is credited with the authorship of the principle known as «Occam’s razor». Some of his works have denied the right of Pope to interfere in the Affairs of the state, and that was the cause of a violent conflict with the Church. In 1323 William went to an important Council of the Franciscans Bristol to defend their views. Around the same time, unknown persons arrived to the papal court and the scientist accused of heresy. In 1324, Ockham was taken to Avignon to stand up for their own protection, although William was not placed under arrest or officially condemned. He was between two fires – Pope John XXII and his fellow Franciscans.
The Franciscans believed that Jesus and his disciples had no right to own property and wealth and wanted to live in poverty and humility. In turn, the Pope rejected these views and invited Occam to Express the opinion on this question. The latter came to the conclusion that the views of John XXII was a heretic, and the Pope himself, to be completely honest, the same. Reasonably fearing for his life, after mentioned, Ockham fled Avignon on 26 may 1328 directly under the protection of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, which was at the center of a political dispute with Pope John. Ockham was officially excommunicated from the Church and quietly spent the rest of his life, being until the last days in sight of the Imperial guard.
5. Jan HUS
National hero of the Czech people, preacher, thinker, ideologist of the Czech reformation, Jan HUS was born in southern Bohemia, studied at Prague University. In 1400 he was ordained priest, and two years later was appointed rector of the aforementioned University. But life is generous with gifts and slaps. Jan trouble began when he began to Express the support of the English reformer John Wycliffe, whose judgment had been ruthlessly relegated by the Church to the category of heretical. Huss also came to the conclusion that the morality of modern religious leaders, to put it mildly, leaves much to be desired. It is clear that such views, expressed publicly, was presented to Jan hatred of the Prague Archbishop, but as a reformer supported the Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslas IV and the ordinary people of the Czech Republic, his life for a time was out of threat.
Unfortunately, the change in the political landscape has unleashed the Archbishop’s hands, and he forbade HUS to preach, and ordered to burn all books, papers and work. Ian was excommunicated by Pope John XXIII, that did not stop him to again take up the pen. In 1414 the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund invited HUS to appear before the Council of Constance to justify his views, promising him safe conduct and security. Gus agreed, but as soon as he arrived at the meeting place, the Council refused earlier composed agreement and Ian was promptly imprisoned and tried for heresy along with his friend Jerome of Prague. In 1415 HUS was burned at the stake, refusing to recant his beliefs.
6. Miguel Servet
A Spanish scholar from the 16th century was a great scholar of theology, mathematics, astronomy, geography and medicine. He was the first in Europe described the pulmonary circulation, but his unorthodox views were condemned by Catholics and Protestants. In 1531 published his treatise «On the errors of the Trinity», and a year later – the second treatise of the «Two books of dialogues on the Trinity», became the answer to a hot controversy in connection with his first job. Antitrinitarian the views of Servet caused the protest of the Catholic and Protestant world, and he was forced into hiding, taking the name Michael Villanovanus, but was arrested later and produced before the court in Lyon.
Servet was convicted, but he managed to escape, so instead his body was burned in effigy. In 1553 he was seen in Geneva, where John Calvin who led the reformation movement actively contributed to his arrest and trial for heresy. The scientist was again convicted of their heretical views concerning the Holy Trinity and was burned alive at the stake on 27 October 1553. His death led to mass criticism of Calvin, which caused controversy among Protestants about the execution of heretics.
7. Etienne Share
Commonly referred to as «the first Martyr of the Renaissance,» Etienne Dole was a French scientist, a humanist, known for his antitrinitarian views. Some historical sources claim that in the veins Etienne flowed the Royal blood, and he was the illegitimate son of Francis I. After training in Paris and Padua, he moved to Toulouse, where his ideas and hot temper got him into a lot of problems. Share, in principle, possessed an uncanny ability to make enemies: banished from the city, he moved to Lyon, where he was put in jail for the murder of the artist (!), but in the end, Etienne received a Royal pardon. After his release Fraction was repeatedly accused of atheism and was again arrested on three charges: two times for the publication of Calvinistic works and once for the publication of the dialogues of Plato, who denied the immortality of the soul. In 1546 the theological faculty of the Sorbonne condemned him for heresy, and the Share was tortured and burned at the stake in Paris.
8. Pomponio, where Algeria
Pomponio, where Algeria was a law student at the University of Padua when his ideas caught the attention of the Inquisition. Standing before the court, he dressed in a student’s gown and cap to remind his accusers that he, as a student, has the right to Express their thoughts freely. The transcript of the trial shows that, Pomponio said that «no Christian should restrict himself to any particular Church.» At the end of his speech, the student refused to recant his ideas, for which he was imprisoned. After a year of imprisonment, Algeria was sent to Rome and handed over to the civil authorities for sentencing. In 1556, the 25-year-old dissident was boiled in oil, and, according to an eyewitness, the Venetian Ambassador in Rome, Pomponio for 15 minutes was still alive and all this time remained calm, and quiet.
9. Giulio Cesare Vanini
Giulio Cesare vanini, Italian free – thinker, who studied philosophy and theology in Rome and physical Sciences in Naples. He then moved to Padua, where he was ordained a priest and began to study law. But his rebellious spirit was weary of the quiet life scientist went wandering through France, Switzerland and the Netherlands, spreading atheistic views and thinking about the fact that people may have descended from apes. In the end, all the books were quickly sentenced to be burned and the author arrested in Toulouse in November 1618. After a lengthy trial vanini was convicted of atheism, he pulled out the tongue and burned at the stake in February 1619.
10. Casimir Lisinski
Casimir Lisinski – Polish nobleman, landowner and philosopher today is considered the first atheist in Poland. Unfortunately, none of his work in the sound did not reach his contemporaries, as all the works were burned at the stake along with it. The author of the treatise «On the non-existence of God» openly denied the existence of God: «God does not exist, it is a Chimera of human consciousness, used by the Church and government for their own purposes. The Bible was written by men, which support a deception.» Of course, he was tried, found guilty and sentenced to death.
The following story, written by Bishop Zaluski describes the sentence: «After the abdication, the culprit was conducted to the scaffold, where the executioner tore with a burning iron the tongue out of his mouth, which he led violent speech against God; after which his hands, devices of the abominable production, were burnt at a slow fire, the sacrilegious, the documents were thrown into the flames; finally himself, that monster of his century, was thrown into the expiatory flames, if such a sin ever be saved.»