Bertrand Russell — philosopher, who should write
In addition to Nietzsche, in our category «Characters» there were no other philosophers. And it’s a shame! Today our hero is known for a wide range of people thanks to the famous philosophical meme «Kettle Russell». For those not in the subject, let talk about it the author himself. «Many believers behave as if not dogmatists should prove generally accepted postulates, and Vice versa — the skeptics are bound to refute them. It is definitely not. If I was to say that between the Earth and Mars around the Sun in an elliptical orbit rotates porcelain teapot, no one could refute my statement, I cautiously add that the teapot is too small to detect it, even with the most powerful telescopes. But I said further that, since my assertion cannot be disproved, intelligent man has no right to doubt its truth, I have rightly pointed out that I am talking nonsense. However, if the existence of such a teapot were affirmed in ancient books, its authenticity was saying every Sunday and the thought of this since childhood, drummed into the heads of schoolchildren, the disbelief in his existence it would seem strange, and doubt — worthy of the attention of psychiatrists in an enlightened age, and earlier attention of the Inquisition.» «Russell’s teapot» — the essence of all the views of Bertrand Russell and what he did Bertrand one of the most important atheists and fighters for the freedom of the individual.
Our hero was born in Wales in a famous aristocratic family. At an early age he lost both parents and was brought up and educated aunt extremely puristic views. But my uncle in the manor had a huge library, books which helped the young guy is not only to satisfy the thirst for knowledge, but also to compensate for the influence of the religious aunt.
In College Russell quickly gained popularity in various political circles and became a supporter of socialism, because he believed it a great way to the development of the economy (dude, trust me, socialism is different, and not only the totalitarianism of the Soviet tailoring). Since Russell was an influential representative of the house, its naznachili diplomat to European countries. So he met with German socialism and wrote about it extensive research work. In this work he expressed confidence that capitalism will not last long and will be replaced socialism with a free market.
The first test of his views was the First world war. The guy was a staunch pacifist, hated war and violence, therefore, participated in the organization of «Counter military recruitment». Unfortunately, the ideas of Russell have not found adequate response in the hearts of people. He was expelled from College, and he quarreled with old friends, who believed that pacifism does not make sense when your country is threatened. Bertrand wrote an anonymous article in the newspaper «the times» that the people should have the right to refuse participation in the war, but she gets everybody’s disapproval, then Russell reveals his identity and speaks openly about their views. Its fine for £ 100, pick up the library and never allowed to leave the country to lecture. Later, Russell put in jail for 6 months.
After the war, Russell goes into a Soviet Republic to see how a new state. He communicates with Lenin, the Block, Gorky and Trotsky and yet, like most people, lies in the euphoria of such a huge victory over the old order. First, man, many were in awe of the Soviet Republic. In the process a longer experience with the opposition, common people and observing what is happening, Bertrand realized that the new system does not respond to the Communist ideas, but is only a new religion and greatly restricts freedom of thought. «Bolshevism is not just a political doctrine, he is also a religion with its dogmas and Holy Scriptures. When Lenin wishes to prove some position, it is possible, quotes of Marx and Engels» — fairly sure the author notes. But in socialism, the present, not in trying to build a Lenin with the company, Russell was not disappointed.
In the future, Russell was invited to China to lecture as a Professor at Peking University. In his lectures he opposes the dictatorship of the proletariat, speaking in favour of the lower class through the education and will to knowledge become at least average.
The approach of the Second world undermine faith Russell in the power of pacifism. When Hitler invaded Poland, Bertrand abandoned his beliefs, began to advocate that fascism gave a fitting rebuff to the military forces. In parallel, Bertrand was finally convinced that religion and the institution of the Church prevent people and limit their freedom.
After the war, Russell fully supports the policy of the cold war, confident that the USSR scary restricts the freedom of the individual and generally betrayed the ideas of socialism. The fact that Russell is still a social Democrat. In fairness it should be noted that he also did not approve of capitalism with democracy of the United States, but of two evils choose the lesser. At the same time a man receives the Nobel prize for literature for his book «Marriage and morals».
After the test of the hydrogen bomb, Russell began to actively oppose nuclear weapons. Don’t think a mathematician and philosopher Russell was opposed to progress and the power of the atom. Bertrand believed that nuclear weapons is one of the most awful examples of when progress got into the wrong hands. It actively supports Einstein, signing two days before the death of the document «Declaration of the Russell-Einstein», the creation of which was attended by other leading representatives of science. In 1961, the 89-year-old Russell for speaking against the nuclear program sentenced to a long imprisonment. When the world threatened by the Cuban missile crisis, Russell tried to convince Kennedy and N. Khrushchev to begin negotiations.
If you think that Bertrand Russell could only play against the Scoop, you’re wrong. He is also active together with well-known figures of art and science spoke out against the Vietnam war. As in the USA? Produces several articles in the spirit of «old, senile», although «old» at this time, published several scientific papers, which seemed to suggest that no, the old man all right. Even with this case: man 4 times married 80 years! Russell died from the flu and managed to become a legend.
How is it so remarkable and why we decided to write about it myself? First, I now read his books. They are cool! Second, this dude has made a huge contribution to modern philosophy, wrote a bunch of books about mathematical logic and has done considerable public work. The atheistic writings of Russell, among which the most famous «Why I am not a Christian» — remarkable books that make to think hard about different things. And the book «Marriage and morals» is almost on par with the «Genealogy of morals» by Nietzsche.