Atheists who changed the world
In the world a sufficient number of rebels and rebels from the literature. The most famous worldwide authors, featuring critical thinking, not afraid of the reaction of the public, expressing their views about religion. Books and philosophical works, some of them had a huge impact on our cultural and political history. Please love and not to complain that we forgot to mention some of the famous atheists that attract you.
1. Karl Marx
World-renowned philosopher, writer, economist, sociologist and owner of a chic beard was quite unequivocal attitude to religious issues. In the introduction «To the critique of Hegel’s philosophy of right,» written in 1843 and published a year later in «German-French Yearbook», Marx stated that «religious misery is at one and the same time, the expression of the real misery and a protest against this real misery. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, just as it is – soul of soulless conditions. Religion is the opium of the people«. Marx is one of the most prominent and influential political thinkers of the world – was not a fan of the Church and about his atheistic worldview stated openly, unashamedly bright and colorful epithets. And yet atheists in different countries apart the statements of the philosopher are quoted, the Christian Church taken aback by the question, was Marx an atheist or a Satanist.
The social principles of Christianity extol cowardice, contempt for himself, self-abasement, humility, obedience, in short – all the qualities of the rabble, but for the proletariat, who did not want to be treated like an employee, for the proletariat, the courage, the consciousness of dignity, a sense of pride and independence – more than bread.
2. Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke, along with Isaac Asimov and Robert Heinlein, part of the «big three» of science fiction, had a huge impact on this genre in the mid XX century. But Clark was not just a writer, he was an inventor, scientist and futurist. His works left an indelible mark in science of the last century. He has inspired a whole new generation of future geeks to explore and create, explore, and strive to get to the truth. This man adhered to the philosophy of atheism and logical positivism, was an honorary member of the International Academy of humanism, and in 1999, Clark received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II.
One of the greatest tragedies of mankind is that morality has been religion. All believe that religion and morality are linked. However, the basis of morality is very simple and does not require any religion: do not do unto others as you want done to you.
3. Bertrand Russell
Mathematician, philosopher and social critic, Bertrand Russell was one of the key players standing at the Foundation of analytic philosophy in the twentieth century. He made an invaluable contribution to mathematical logic, history of philosophy and theory of knowledge. His work has been compared in importance with the writings of Aristotle, but also his philosophical and scientific works, he is widely known as an anti-war activist, who during the First world war was imprisoned for pacifist beliefs. Also Bertrand protested against American intervention in the war in Vietnam and against the use of nuclear weapons. In 1950 he was awarded the Nobel prize for literature in recognition of his humanitarian ideals. And these ideals rejected the notion of religious faith. He believed that religion is a means of suppressing the human person and that it promotes fear and dependence, whereas every reasonable person should be based on rationality.
If I suggest that between the Earth and Mars around the Sun in an elliptic orbit the porcelain teapot, no one can refute my statement, especially if I prudently adds that the kettle is so small that is not visible to even the most powerful telescopes. But if I then said that since my assertion cannot be disproved, then it is unacceptable to the human mind to doubt, my words would be good reason to consider nonsense. However, if the existence of such a teapot were affirmed would in ancient books, every Sunday, memorize as the Holy truth, and was deposited would in the minds of the students, the doubt in his existence would be a sign of eccentricity and attracted the least doubting the attention of the psychiatrist during the enlightenment or of the Inquisitor in an earlier time.
4. Primo Levi
Italian chemist of Jewish origin managed to write many books, but his most famous work – «Man is it?». In it, he described in detail all the horrors that happen in Auschwitz. Levi was captured by the fascists in 1943 as a member of the Italian resistance movement and spent in the camp eleven months until it was liberated by the Soviet army.
I came to the camp of the atheist, I was dismissed, being an atheist, and as an atheist I live to this day.
5. Richard Dawkins
Popular English writer, philosopher, skeptic, ethologist and evolutionary biologist – the face of modern militant Atheist movement. Many find the views of Richard Dawkins on religion overly harsh and uncompromising, but that he alone was able to promote the study of genetics and first introduced the term «meme».
When people ask me about my atheistic beliefs, I’m always happy to answer that the interlocutor is himself an atheist in regard to Zeus, Apollo, Amon RA, Mithras, Baal, Thor, Odin, the Golden calf and the Flying spaghetti Monster. I just added this list is still one God.