Amazing things from the world of psychological research
Psychology has the reputation of being the science of common sense. Well, or it is considered by critics area where psychologists with the clever kind to explain truths. Everyone has their own opinion about this, but there are a number of psychological effects or experiments that make us think that all is not so simple as it seems at first glance.
1. Cognitive dissonance
This is perhaps one of the strangest States of the world in psychology, which probably faced each of us. The theory put forward by Leon Festinger, suggests that «cognitive dissonance is a condition characterized by a clash in the mind of conflicting knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors with respect to some object or phenomenon». So, to the mind and soul of man also found rest, must be coordinated in existing and acquired knowledge to resolve this conflict of beliefs.
For example, you will be considered a boring job interesting, even if for it you will begin to pay a penny. So why are you still not leaving from this place? At the level of your subconscious will be an interesting monologue: «Hmm… Why do I work this crap job for pennies? Because I am interested to work on it! I like the idea and the principle of… Strange, why it is shitty? Well… It’s all because of the colleagues, superiors, moon in Capricorn, etc.»
The trap of cognitive dissonance lies in our willingness to find excuses for yourself, frustrating external circumstances. All because our mind who is looking for such rationalization, unknowingly, and once an excuse is found, the conflict of knowledge ceases to trouble us, and we let go of a situation that is likely to remain unsolved – just changed our attitude and vision.
So what do you think, really?
2. Hallucinations for everyone
Hallucinations are like waking dreams, and we tend to think of them as a clear sign of serious mental illness. In fact, such visions are common among «normal» people more than you can imagine. Dr. Maurice Ohayon, Professor of psychiatry and behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, in 2000 he conducted a large study, which revealed that a third of respondents at least once, but saw hallucinations, 20% have hallucinations once a month, and 2% consistently once a week. Of course, the poll was conducted among fans of speed, LSD and other «extenders of consciousness.» In addition, the «normal» people often suffer from paranoid thoughts. So the gap between people with mental illness and those who are «sane», is a lot less than we would like to think.
3. The placebo effect
You may remember a case when, having drunk a tablet from a headache, you get the expected result after a couple of seconds after the medication. Now, with his wonderful recovery you have is not the tablets because they are absorbed by the body at least 15 minutes.
The placebo effect: your mind realizes that you took the pill so that would make you dramatically better. In medicine there are many examples where this effect has delivered man from the terrible pain: some studies show that ordinary salt water could relieve the suffering of the patient worse than morphine. There are also of the view that the positive effect of such a powerful drug as Prozac, is also 80% required the placebo effect. Scientists see this one more undeniable proof that our body and mind are inseparable.
4. Obedience to authority
Most of us like to think of ourselves as independently-minded people. We are confident that we will not unnecessarily harm another person, except under very serious duress. A well-known experiment Stanley Milgram showed that people are quite willing to agree to strike another person with a Taser, if required by the authority representative. Of course, the role of the «victims» were hired actors who brilliantly played his role, shouting from the pain, even though stun guns have been de-energized. Nevertheless, almost every participant of the experiment agreed on this requirement, despite the warning that this category of person can be easily hurt or even kill. After that, each subject fell into a terrible depression, and experiments questioned from the point of view of moral ethics.
So, what causes us to obey the authorities? First, the Executive orders he convinces himself that he is not responsible for their actions: all the blame lies on the person who gave the order. Second, the authorities have weapons, powers and all the means to turn your life into hell, and then, as the saying goes, charity begins at home.
I wonder how would you do it? Took over the situation or allowed the situation to control you?
5. Imagination can reduce motivation
One of the ways that people usually motivate themselves, dream about the future. Supposedly your imagination, where you are rich and successful, speaks several foreign languages, with huge banks on hand and the incredible power indicators help you to achieve these goals. However, some psychologists say that such dreams have quite the opposite effect: constantly thinking about the future in the present tense, you lose incentive to do things here and now, absorbed with the head in the time that has not yet occurred and may not occur. Carefully preserving your imagination, you risk to lose the taste for real life and for a long time to fall out of real time.
6. Blind pick
Each of us know the reasons, focusing on that we make certain decisions, isn’t it?
For example, do you know why you were so pleased with the beauty of the neighboring office? Don’t be so sure, dude, it’s not about her nice Tits and round elastic ass. Well, or only partially.
Once conducted a study in which people were deceived and didn’t notice a Scam. Test subjects were asked to choose from a huge number of photos the faces of those who sympathize with them, and then explain your choice. But in the course of the experiment almost all the photos were tampered with and the test subjects did not notice, continuing to talk about why they like so much the faces of strangers. It’s called blind pick: when we do not understand, why choose one over the other, but strict rationalization is trying to cover the ass of this lack of knowledge.
Well, we again clear that nothing is clear when it comes to the structure of our brain.
7. Attempt to suppress your thoughts is counterproductive
If you’re worried about something, people often start to say, «Hey, try not to think about it, just get it out of my head!» But there are psychologists who argue that it is very bad advice. If right now you forbid yourself to think about one pink elephant, in the vastness of your imagination immediately starts to play a whole herd. A more efficient method to get rid of annoying or negative thoughts – the strategy of distraction. Look for something that really can distract and shift your attention to things more useful and pleasant.
8. The ineffectiveness of brainstorming
According to psychological research, brainstorming doesn’t work. People in groups usually lazy, you forget what you wanted to say or elementary worried about what other people think. Much better to send people to generate new ideas in splendid isolation, and only then, in groups, to collectively evaluate such ideas, or to bring it to mind.
9. The meaning of life is in the details
We tend to think that the most important events in our lives are global in nature: prom, wedding, child birth, rise on a career ladder, etc. But, according to psychologists, human happiness consists of a chain of small and household events, which saturate our lives day to day: a good night’s sleep, the UPS and downs of work, relationships with our friends and family, a delicious dinner or a new episode of your favorite series – these are the little things that fill our lives with meaning and joy.