8 post-human creatures that might inherit the Earth
Homo sapiens was a good guy about whom you can say that he was smart and wise in some way. But once a big lizard under the name t Rex was quite clever for its time. And here we are overcome by some terrible virus, or we kill ourselves in all-consuming nuclear war, and humanity, unfortunately, is dying. Maybe we just got crazy to the point that no longer has the right to call ordinary people? Who knows? But we will give you our imagination on this topic.
1. Evolved animals
The idea that someday animals have evolved with human intelligence, is not new. It goes back directly to Hg wells and his book «the Island of Dr. Moreau». Writer Smith Govener introduced animals as an oppressed caste that is sure to raise a rebellion to fight for their rights, but David Brin has shown us a universe where almost all sentient beings have the mind of mankind, which gave them consciousness in the course of their experiments.
People such as George Dvorsky, argue that man has a moral duty to raise the lower forms of intelligence equal level, in a time when we have the necessary conditions and technical means. Dworsky leads the current research, when scientists are trying to identify the beginnings of personality in monkeys. He argues that the next step will be to identify other human abilities, and after the inclusion of animals in public life. And if you have the ability to make the intelligence of dolphins, elephants much more suitable for informative purposes, it is our duty.
On the other hand, many talk about the problems that stand in the way of the humanization of animals. In order to work successfully, we must first make changes in the DNA at the embryonic level, which will lead to an inevitable failed attempts before something happens. Then the question is: how do you maintain the life of a new being, if suddenly it will appear different physical defects? The creation of such forms of life may seem immoral to a certain category of people. But if us will succeed on this path, how will we cope with social and emotional needs of new chimps, parrots or bonobos? In other words, it is possible that there will be injury to the psyche due to the clumsy human attempts to artificially evolve separate species in the laboratory. The tendency of chimps to violence, and dolphins rape will then be implemented in the intellectual form or remain at the level of instincts? Some argue that intelligent consciousness is not a simple thing, and that if the intelligence of a human, successfully developed in other species, then we will have the problem of the emergence of new value systems and psychological processes that even we will not be able to understand and explain.
2. Collective intelligence
In «star Trek» was such a fictional race called debt. They sought to bring all living species of the Universe to the bosom of one collective mind. Most people think that it would be terribly bad, but not everyone agrees. Travis James Lalan argues that the collective mind will immediately destroy the propaganda and social pressure on the person, within the hive each individual shall happily and freely. And we all strive, in the opinion of Leland, this is what. We connect to the Internet and social media to become closer and more connected with their species.
Integration with technology and the pursuit of relationships do not reduce individuality. Similar allows to simplify the means of expressing their individuality in an embryonic global collective consciousness. We are already able to send video, audio and view information using the electrodes. It is likely that in the future we will be able to communicate using thoughts or at least just pass the information.
Collective intelligence has great advantages as it can afford, it is impossible to carry out within the individual entities. the Ability to coordinate massive projects will be improved, planning of complex tasks will be more effective, and people will be more understand each other.
Of course, there are drawbacks. The existential fear of loss of identity, the threat of viruses and hackers in the early stages, not to mention who is going to control the whole process. What will happen to those people who will Express their ego in a virtual hive? Apparently, the secret police take care of them.
3. Genetic caste
The political scientist Francis Fukuyama believes that transhumanism is today one of the most dangerous ideas. He sees a fundamental danger in trying to improve human nature. The X factor – so he called his thesis, which is the adverse impact of transhumanism.
It cannot be reduced to moral choice, mind, consciousness or any other quality that was advanced as a ground for human dignity. It is all those qualities in a person that make up factor X.
Francis FukuyamaFukuyama believed that the development of genetically modified people would mean the end of the liberal ideal of political equality of all people. Access to the technology of genetic modification may lead to the emergence of genetic castes and undermine our common humanity, and the rich class can create a more fit, beautiful and intelligent children with significant advantages than the less successful genetic mass.
Some believe that the complexity of genetic modification and cultural rejection of experimentation on children is unlikely to make this scenario likely. Others say that even if this happens, it does not necessarily mean political inequality, and political rights have never been based on physical differences.
The science of modifying babies already exist in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and in vitro fertilization, all it enjoys wide support and provides protection against genetic diseases. Because of such fears in society may worsen the problem of genetic diseases, and wealthy class, as before will have the opportunity to go to a country where this field are not so hostile.
4. Grey goo
In 1986, the engineer Eric Drexler have raised concerns their opinions about nanotechnology revolt against the human race. At the time, he described the potential benefits of nanotechnology, for example, in the future we can destroy cancer cells and repair DNA, but he also expressed concern that in the end, such work will begin to compete with living organisms occupying ecological niches, and ultimately will carry out the capture of almost all resources on the planet. He called this scenario the «grey goo».
Prince Charles concerned about this state of Affairs, convened a «summit of nanotechnology» in his estate, Gloucestershire. Nanotechnologist Richard Smalley noted that «molecular manufacturing» required to create such nanobots, from a scientific point of view impossible. Drexter said that the skeptical attitude Smalley driven by the desire to protect funding for nanotehnologicheskih research, and the danger remains.
5. Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence develops very quickly. And there is nothing surprising in the fact that there are fears on this score. Weak AI is inspired by human brain, but so far it is only able to imitate him: to scan information, to play chess, to talk to you, take orders, give you GPS directions. These tasks are performed by methods that are little like a usual human thinking.
Strong AI is intended to simulate human intelligence in reasoning, planning, exercises, conduct of negotiations. Proponents of strong AI are trying to achieve development that meant was comparable to the power of artificial intelligence with human intelligence. Many fear that after that will inevitably be given the green light on the prevalence of artificial intelligence in all spheres of life, which means you will not be able to know in which direction will move the civilization and the place it assigned to the person.
The emergence of fully-fledged artificial intelligence could be the end of the human race. Such a mind will take the initiative and become myself to improve with all increasing speed. People’s opportunities are limited too slow evolution, we will not be able to compete with the speed of the machines and lose.
Stephen HawkingAlthough many scientists eliminate all of these concerns, preferring to think that the development of artificial intelligence will complement humanity, not destroy it.
In 1991 Charles Platt published a book «Silicon Mind», which talked about the quest for immortality by using a copy of the human mind in computers created entity called intervalami. In 1996, the Russian artificial intelligence theorist Alexander chislenko borrowed the name to describe a theoretical fact based on the distribution of intelligence. These brain network can share knowledge much faster than we can turn that leads to massive changes in the concept of identity, however, as well as in the discussion above of the concept of mass consciousness.
Not limited by physical bodies, these beings will consider many human concepts are alien and irrelevant. The advantages of such a life lies in the fact that intelligence will be able to increase your height, you can more focus on knowledge and personal happiness, reduced environmental impact and a departure from the laws of physics will lead to immortality.
The main issue is loaded wit» is something we will never know consciously they are acting or just imitate themselves, they remain alive or not. How would feel a person with no real internal mental state?
7. Transgenic people
Transgenic animals has long existed in our world. For example, using similar technologies was created glow in the dark mouse, and fish that have been genetically altered with fluorescent colors. The technology has been used in attempts to revive the mammoth, and there is controversy about use of genetic engineering to study the living conditions of human ancestors. There are perspectives in which people will be able to borrow some genetic advantages in other animals.
Production of transgenic humans would require a series of events. The introduced transgene must be isolated and included at the right time in the right field, then it is placed inside the human cell and tissue are grown in. The core of transgenic human cells should be placed in the egg, followed by growth and division. Now develops the embryo in the uterus for further growth. The technology needed to achieve all these steps is already available. In laboratory conditions was already mixed human and non-human genes, contributed stem-cell research.
Such research allow you to expand your mind, sharpen the senses, to the capacity for photosynthesis, or to the use of sonar. We can take the genes of a chimpanzee, to improve the efficiency of our muscles, and the like.
But people are afraid of such changes, and despite the fact that science will always go ahead of the horrors the world is full of medieval superstition, the result of which is restrictive measures in genetic engineering around the world. We think that in a hundred years the planet will inhabit people with genotypes, including a variety of other types of genes, whether the genes of bats, chimpanzees or octopi.
The word «cyborg» was first used in the 1960 article by Manfred Clinicom With Nathan. Klein. They talked about ways of enhancing unconscious self-regulatory control functions by chemical or electronic means in order to allow people to better survive in different environmental conditions, and ultimately in space. They wrote: «If man in space need to constantly check things and make adjustments only in order to save his life, he becomes a slave to the machine. The purpose of the cyborg, as well as his own homeostatic systems, is to provide an organizational system in which such work can take care of security, automatically and unconsciously, leaving man free to explore, to create, to feel and to think.»
Later this word began to apply to patients who are dependent on prosthetics and implants. The word became used as a metaphor for the increasing dependence on technology. Recent research in practical Cybernetics allow us to create a bionic arm, and connect the nervous system to computers through the electrodes.
In 2015, Professor Yuval Noah Harari from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, predicted that within 200 years humans will become cyborgs because of our need to update. Zoltan Istvan, founder of the Transhumanist Public Parties, advocates the desirability of public expenditure on the development of artificial heart and cranial implants. All this, in his opinion, will reduce the growth of crime, improving health and growth of human life. DARPA – the research wing of the us army – announced the creation of a biotechnology Management, which will explore the dynamic intersection of the biological and physical Sciences. They hope that such technology will facilitate the lives of future soldiers.
Another DARPA initiative, with the potential for civilian applications, there is an artificial chromosome. They represent the future soldier, which will not need to sleep, which require less food, and also have infrared vision. The name for the future «Robocop» was already proposed: Homo Electricus.