5 scientific discoveries that are astonishingly cold
Science, without a doubt, one of the most interesting things in the Universe. And it never ceases to amaze us every day. We uncovered many secrets of the world that were previously attributed to mythical beings and, perhaps, the day is near when the answers to almost all questions will be known. However, the fact that their disclosure will not protect us from obscurantism and stupidity. But everyone has access to the fruits of scientists that help to make the person better. manygoodtips.com closely monitoring new or interesting scientific discoveries and will not cease to tell that might surprise you. This time the selection includes a truly amazing discovery.
1. Absolute zero
Ultracold experiments are conducted on the most modern equipment that is available nowadays. But, as is usually the case, theory is ahead of practice and technical capabilities. The idea of absolute zero originated earlier than each of us appeared the refrigerating chamber. It was the XVIII-XIX century, when in 1702, scientists have suggested the possibility of a finite temperature, and in 1848, Lord Calvin had developed a theory that its value was -273,15 degrees Celsius.
Temperature is the energy associated with movement of particles, and absolute zero is the moment when the particles stop. It’s not just the end of the scale temperatures, is its absence. Temperature is deprived of the ability to transfer thermal energy.
Absolute zero is not just a number on the thermometer is the limit of existence, beyond which there is nothing. This is the minimum temperature limit, which can have a physical body in the Universe. We found this value much earlier than invented refrigerators. And now, thanks to painstaking study of this issue, do you have ice in your cocktail.
2. We saw how the universe releases its first world
Scientists are not just talking about what happened billions of years ago. Why should only the fact that we are able to see the first light emitted from our Universe.
The existence of relic radiation was predicted by Gamow in the framework of the theory of the Big Bang. And the term entered our astrophysicist V. S. Shklovsky. In fact, the background radiation is the microwave background radiation that existed in the first 400,000 years of the Universe (a very miserable time, if we talk about space).
More than 13 billion years ago the universe expanded enough so that you can see the light. And this world, and we can see it. We like looking at baby photos of our cosmic home. And the world we are talking about, because the universe was different then. And relict light has only 3 degrees above absolute zero when initially he had a temperature up to 3000 degrees Celsius.
3. We found the coldest natural object in the Universe
The universe is like an infinite toy store – you never know what you’re in the Department. But the search for specific objects like finding a needle in a haystack assumes that haystack is the size of a star. Despite the difficulties, people still manage to find something unique in the observable Universe.
This cool thing was the boomerang Nebula, located at a distance of 5000 light years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus. In 1995, a 15-meter submillimeter telescope of the European southern Observatory in Chile was able to determine that nebula as the coldest known places in the Universe. The temperature of the nebula is equal to -272 degrees Celsius. What does this mean? That this planetary nebula even colder than the background radiation from the Big Bang. At the moment it is the only astronomical object that has such a low temperature.
4. Space Observatory Planck
She, incidentally, is also cold, because no cooling of this space Observatory, which is placed respectively in the space, it will be impossible to get the original photons from the CMB.
The cooling system of Planck is a masterpiece of technique of low temperatures. And it works perfectly for many years, providing us the most precise measurements of cosmological data. Her work not only gave us a glimpse of the early Universe, she gave us a map of this Universe. In the period from 2009 to 2010 astronomical satellite of the European space Agency successfully completed its substantive work, and additional mission ended in October 2013.
In General, the device is already retired, so it is advisable to remember his achievements:
– we learned that the world is 4.9% of ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% of dark energy.
– we learned that from the moment of the big Bang it took of 13.80 billion years;
– there are three types of neutrinos: electron, muon and Tau neutrino;
– it was confirmed by the difference spectrum of the initial perturbations from homogeneous matter.
5. The cool stuff
The universe has managed to create a nebula, which is only one degree above absolute zero. Thus, the boomerang Nebula is the coldest object in the observable Universe. But the person used a couple of tons of brutal science to get around the universe and at the same time, creating such a thing, as the condensate Bose-Einstein.
What is it? This state of matter, which is based on the bosons cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero (less than a millionth of a degree above absolute zero). For creating this condensate scientists were awarded the Nobel prize in physics. It was the year 2001.
The results, incidentally, was obtained thanks to the staff of the Laboratory of cold atoms for the prototype, which is designed to work on the international space station in 2016.
From a practical point of view, these studies will help to create more sensitive quantum detectors, and ultra-precise atomic clocks that could become the new standard of time measurement.