5 modern technologies that are much older than you think
Modern science and technological progress, gently holding hands, almost every day punched all the new gadgets. And even if you bought a flagship smartphone, not the fact that in 48 hours he will not be considered outdated rag.
But there are some devices that come to us from time immemorial and, despite its commonplace and shabby, much older than you think.
1. The Fax machine
If you’re not an ardent supporter of vintage style or old school, you know the Fax machine only as a mysterious unit that stands on the floor of your office and collects the dust from the entire surrounding area.
But some of us remember how great rescued this Pandora when pressed for time and had to send a huge pile of important documents without the risk of losing important letters through the efforts of the Russian post. Then on «e-mail» was not particularly popularized, and the Fax machine was king at the forefront of the information superhighway. That Fax uses phone lines to transfer data, in fact, is the native paw paw modern fixed phones.
A look back. It was a dashing 1843. Before the Civil war was still twenty years old, and the only entertainment was the creation of new devices. Well and fever.
In a country ravaged dysentery, there was such a clever craftsman from Scotland, Alexander Bain, who shortly before the specified time patented the first electric clock. He also made a significant contribution to the development of the Telegraph lines on the railway between Glasgow and Edinburgh and invented an electrical timing system for railway engines.
In addition, he used an electrochemical method of printing that made it possible to accelerate work with the standard for machine code 40 to almost 300 words per minute.
The electrical Telegraph was an extremely new and advanced technology, but Bain thought that if the Telegraph is good for audio of Morse code, it must be good enough for transferring photos.
And before he began to explain that the sound and picture are two different things, Alexander Bain demonstrated and patented his own design of the electric Telegraph, which enabled to transmit by wire image. Camera Bain is considered the first primitive Fax machine.
2. Digital calculator
Waves of history as we take to the shores of 1642, when the young talent from France, Blaise Pascal created a summing machine «Pascaline» could not stand the observation of how his father, who was a tax collector, all night scribbling debilitating financial calculations.
Pascal’s machine was a mechanical device in the form of a box with numerous associated one with the other gears. Add up the number introduced into the machine through an appropriate rotation of bead wheels.
On each of these wheels corresponding to one decimal digit numbers that were marked division from 0 to 9. If you enter a number, the wheels would turn to the appropriate numbers. After one turn, the excess over the figure 9 the wheel is transferred to the neighboring discharge, moving the adjacent wheel in 1 position.
The first versions of «Pascaline» had five gears, and later their number increased to six or even to eight, allowing to work with big numbers up to 9999999. The answer appeared in the top of the metal housing. The wheel spin was only possible in one direction, eliminating the possibility of direct handling of negative numbers.
Pascal built about 50 «Pascaline»calculator, trying to sell them for commercial purposes. But apparently, the device is too ahead of his time, and willing to take possession of this computing machine could be counted on the fingers of one hand.
3. Contact lenses
The eyes are unreliable and vulnerable organ. Scientists around the world have spent a long time poking at them to establish this undeniable fact.
It is now we can not wear glasses that are not for everyone, improving your vision, making it perfectly acceptable for the appearance of the guy exhausted by life and the eternal virginity of nerds.
And thanks for the first prototype of contact lenses Adolf Fick, who created the first glass contact lens, whose shape corresponds to the shape of the eye. After experimenting on dogs and rabbits, he decided to conduct tests on the human eye. The first brave subjects was himself.
In the early 1920-ies it was mass production of glass contact lens optical company Carl Zeiss Jena (Germany), for their selection were made special trial packs. Further development of contact correction was aimed at improving the tolerability of contact lenses and the search for new materials for their manufacture.
Oftalmologica but this luxury was not available to everyone, visually impaired, and the purchase of lenses have cost their owner in ringing a lot of money.
If you live in the territory that is prone to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or any other form of cataclysm, seismograph may be the only item that will be between you and lava in the crack of your house.
The need of mankind to create devices, warnings about such disasters was very great.
The earliest examples of seismographs dates from 1880. But long before them, in the year 132 B. e.., was created a simple seismometer Zhang Heng, who was able to use the device data of the earthquake to the far County Longxi.
The device was a huge tub. During an earthquake the balls from the mouths of dragons, which was adorned with the invention, falling in the mouth of frogs. If all fell — the device is at the epicenter. If 1-2, it is possible to know the direction of the shock wave.
5. Laser disc
There is a version that the CD was not invented by Philips and Sony in 1979, shaggy, and American physicist James Russell worked in company Optical Recording. In 1971 he demonstrated his invention for data storage. He did it for «personal» purposes, to avoid scratching their gramophone needles pickups. Eight years later a similar device was «independently» invented by Philips and Sony.