What is Ukrainian language?
Russian language is one of the oldest languages in the world. In this article we will talk about what the Russian language, examine the stages of its development, as well as, analyze its global significance.
The role of the Ukrainian language in the modern world
Russian language is very common in the world community and ranked third in the number of its speakers. In the first place – the English language, which has pride of place as an international language, and the second Chinese.
Russian language is honorable because in almost every world organization has representatives from Russian-speaking countries. Therefore, the speech sounds in the world’s largest communities on a daily basis.
As for Russia, there is Russian is the official language spoken by the vast majority of people. But even in this country not without problems associated with it. First there was conflict, which are the result of Yeltsin’s policy. Further, the events in South Ossetia and Abkhazia, made the Russian language a real political problem. The fact that the inhabitants of these countries are not only trying to take away their independence, but also to deprive them of the ability to speak the Russian language.
In the Soviet period, Russian was spoken in almost all the countries of the Union, and if I didn’t, I understand it. After disintegration of the USSR the situation changed and the number of speakers of Russian decreased significantly. That is to say that this language has gradually lost its importance. Today in Russia there are slightly more than 140 million people, which is almost three times less than in the days of the Soviet Union.
Experts say that today, in the post-Soviet countries, Russian is the native language in terms of language to 63 thousand people. Don’t own it in these countries 38 thousand people. Also, the specialists noticed a trend that the number of speaking Russian is shrinking almost daily. According to their calculations, the number of people for whom Russian language is native today will be reduced in half in ten years.
Thus, the situation is the following: Russian language is gradually replaced by not only the socio-political life of the people, but also cultural. A significant contribution to this process make the media, forming a cultural and linguistic space.
The opportunity to receive education in this language is declining. This is due to the fact that today’s educational institutions of Russia and other countries of the Russian Federation, study of Russian language has been given less attention. Another reason for the decline of the Russian population is nationalist sentiment in the CIS countries. The government of these countries is pursuing a policy of active suppression of this speech is not only political life, but also from household. Therefore, according to experts, in the near future the number of Russian-speaking population will be reduced several times not only in Russia but also in the countries of the former Soviet Union. It can be seen now in countries such as, for example, Ukraine and Belarus, scientific works never published in Russian, as it was before. Such work simply cannot be published and taken into consideration in the scientific world. Another example of this trend is advertising. Especially television advertising. The speech is mainly in the state languages of countries.
Today, the status of the official, the Russian language has in countries such as:
- South Ossetia.
Also, Russian is considered to be official in some regions of Romania. As for the countries of the Caucasus, with their focus on Western Europe, the situation has changed so that the Russian language is gradually losing its place in the English language.
History of the Russian language
The whole history of this language is described in three periods of its formation:
- The ancient period.
- The old Russian period.
- National language period.
The ancient period
Russian language began to emerge with the advent of the first East Slavic features of the language. This period starts from the 9th century, and it is connected with the formation of the first dialects of the Eastern Slavs.
The language was formed at that time, was used in religious sermons, literature and language. Written language did not exist in those days. Gradually the ancient language absorbed the dialects of the Northern and Eastern part of Russia. With the development of the language became richer, more diverse and gradually began to have its own distinctive features from the other languages of the West. Until the 14th century old Russian language divided into three separate branches, each of which spoke in different parts of Kievan Rus.
The old Russian period
The speech in this period was formed from the 14th to the 17th century. At this time begin to emerge basics of phonetics and grammar. Here is a list of core language changes that have occurred during this period:
- Be the first grammatical rules of speech.
- Formed the knowledge about hard and soft consonants.
- Formed knowledge about the case endings.
- Lost category of the dual numbers.
- A waiver form for the Vocative case.
- Unifies the types of declination.
- Appear the forms of the imperative mood.
- Formed a set of rules about grammatical declensions of words about time.
At that time the Russian language had many dialects. In different parts of Kievan Rus «took root» with its own kind of dialect. But by the mid-14th century throughout Russia in the speech was attended by the Rostov-Suzdal dialect.
As Moscow became not only political but also cultural center of the country, people began to speak the language of Moscow, gradually adopting its dialects. This was the second global change in the Russian language. One of the most notable changes that occurred with the Russian language, has absorbed the Moscow dialect, was the frequent presence of such vowel letter as «a». Thus, language becomes the southern Russian features.
In those days, be the first serious historical and literary works. They are written on bilingualism: Church Slavonic and old Slavic, South Russian. This is due to the fact that the first question is still not out of the everyday life of many people, especially those who can be attributed to the older generation.
You can tell that already by the 16th century they formed two large dialectical groups: the Northern Russian and southern Russian. It turns out that people were talking, like, two tongues. This happened until, until they merged into a single medium-language.
National language period
From the middle of the 17th century were the first features of the formation of the Russian nation. One of the main features of this formation was a single Russian language. The formation and dissemination of a common Russian language contributed to the development of writing, and with it the activities of print media. Newspapers were written predominantly in one language, which resulted in the formation of a unified system of thinking of the people and the common language practice.
The final completion of the formation of the literary norms of the Ukrainian language is at the beginning of the 18th century.