What is the syntax in the Russian language?

The word «syntax» comes from the Greek word syntaxis, which means «preparation». The meaning of the word gives us to understand that the syntax is closely connected with the ordering of units of language. To understand what the syntax in the Russian language, you need to remember that this grammar, and also refer to the history of linguistics.


Connection syntax

Many linguists interested in the question what is the syntax. This section of the science described in the works of ancient, but finally he was formed in the 19th century.

Scientists have formulated a clear definition. Syntax is a branch of language science which involves the doctrine of phrases and sentences. The various components of language are joined together by syntactic relations.


There are two types of links:

  1. Coordinating. The relationship between equal linguistic units. In this case, we can ask the question from one part to another. Coordinating the relationship is between words in phrases (forest and mountains), in simple sentences it is presented in the form of a homogeneous members («… we will dance the forest and mountains!» Krylov I.) and can also link parts of compound sentences («… And we have the notes, and the tools are…». Krylov).

Coordinating conjunctions – coordinating the main satellites of communication: and, but, or, or, something, not – not the other

  1. Subordinating. It arises when the units are unequal. One is the main, and the other depends on it. We can put the question from the main part to the dependent. This relationship calls for help subordinating conjunctions: that, where, which, because, if, when other

To learn

Subordinating connection is well illustrated by the following example from Ivan Krylov’s fables: «We’ll probably get along just fine, (what condition?) if you sit there».

The phrase

To understand what the syntax means, it should be considered the basic units of phrase and sentence.

The phrase is two, three or more words that are related by subordination. A prerequisite is that the words must be significant, that is meaningful.


It is possible to refer back to the fable and find in them a perfect example that shows that this phrase:

How many times told the world,

That flattery hateful, harmful; but it’s not the future,

And in the heart of the smoothie always find area.


In these lines we can find the following phrases:

  1. Kept saying (to whom?) the world
  2. Flattery (which?) hateful, harmful
  3. Find (where?) in the heart
  4. Find (what?) area


Famous linguist Valery Vinogradov has formulated the following definition: «Sentence – grammatically issued under the laws of the language integral unit of speech, which is the main means of formation, expression and communication of thought.»

In phrase no finality expressed ideas, and in the sentence it is present.


In the syntax distinguish simple and complex sentences:

  1. A simple sentence is a basic sentence form, which helps to build complex sentences. It has a grammatical basis. Examples of simple sentences:
  • Winter came
  • Rooks have arrived
  • The Fox fled
  1. A complex sentence is composed of at least two grammatical basics. Parts United by a sense, grammatically and tonally. Examples of complex sentences:
  • When I entered the house, I saw on the table a large samovar and a pile of foreign magazines
  • The cat came back home, because the street was dark


Complex sentence informs the reader about several events and about relationships between them. Complex sentences are allied and conjunctionless.

Syntax — is the most important part of language science that requires careful study.

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