What is the morpheme in the Russian language?

The study of the Russian language in school or College is always associated with many difficulties. Has to go into a huge amount of terminology to master a variety of analyses and critiques. Many find it hard to understand what a morpheme in the Russian language? What lies behind this concept?

what is the morpheme in the Russian language

What is the morpheme in the Russian language?

Everything that is said or written by people you can define how certain elements. For example, there are texts, paragraphs, sentences, words and the like. The morpheme is the smallest such unit, which, however, has some meaning. Less morpheme can only be a phoneme, but when it exists by itself, it is hardly possible to distinguish any sense.

The concept of «morpheme» was first introduced by Ivan Baudouin de Courtenay, linguist, in some measure belonged to both Russia and Poland. Its commonly used interpretation of the word received much later. It was created by Leonard Bloomfield, a linguist from the United States of America.

A morpheme is called an abstract manifestation. When she is in a particular text, it is called morfou or morfou. Often there are situations when the same morpheme is somewhat different due to their environment, in particular, from a phonetic point of view. Call it allomorphy.

It is easier to understand than allomorph is a classic example with the verb to run. «I run, you run, he runs». In this sentence, the morpheme «bag» looks different. In particular, it has two allomorph – running and beige.

However, in the language (and even the scientific literature) people often use the word morpheme is morph.

Types of morphemes

In order to understand what words mean morpheme, it is necessary to consider the main existing types of this language unit.

First and foremost, finding a morpheme, people are paying attention to the root. This is the main part of the word, which usually contains all its meaning. Without root can not be the word – it is a mandatory part. Sometimes words have only one morpheme – the root. However, in most cases, there are other.

These are the affixes. In the school years is unlikely to hear this notion, especially considering that most often it is used in other languages. An affix is any part of a word added to the root. With its help form new concepts. The main difference between this morpheme in that it cannot exist by itself. Although it has some value, just join to the root, affix has its meaning.

In this morpheme can allocate a large enough own classification. For example, it is divided into prefix, roots, or roots-suffixes, however, as a rule, it is used in the English language.

What is the morpheme in the Russian language? Among the considered affixes, mostly prefixes, suffixes and endings. Interestingly, the ends are called inflections, however, this name did not become traditional.


Prefixes, suffixes

Depending on where a particular particle, it is called a prefix or Postfix. It is easy to guess the meaning of these terms. The prefixes are in the main part of the word, i.e. the root, and Postfix are placed after it.

To root can be consoles. They complement a few or changing the meaning of the word. Very often, the prefixes are derived from prepositions, and therefore give the roots of the meaning which was the original reason. Only in Russian there is about 70 consoles. Interestingly, the prefix is not available in all languages. For example, grammar of the Turkic language is based on Postfix.

A suffix is a morpheme that is placed after the root. It is defined as a Postfix, which is not the end. In languages like Indo-European, linguistics often focuses on key differences in suffixes and inflections. In the Russian language, this morpheme is very often used in order to change the part of speech of words.

At the end of virtually any term can find the end. With their help, you can learn about the Association of the word with any other part of the sentence and clarify its meaning.

There are also several highly specialized morphemes, like interfixes and infixes. They are considered official, do not have a own sense, and very often added in the middle of a word, straight to the root.


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