What is the Biosphere?
What is the Biosphere? The issue is so deep and multifaceted to answer in a few sentences is simply impossible. In General, the word «biosphere» is of Greek origin. It carries a semantic definition: «a ball, inside of which life.» Speaking scientific language, the Biosphere is the living shell of the Earth in which living organisms coexist different species and life forms. In General, the Biosphere forms a single ecological system of the Earth.
The formation of the Biosphere began almost 4 billion years ago, when the ocean, the Earth was in its infancy life in its primeval soup of amino acids and minerals. The biosphere integrates all living organisms inhabited in:
- The hydrosphere (rivers, seas, oceans and lakes).
- The lithosphere (the upper layers of this system are home to numerous invertebrates, insects, worms, animals, bacteria and viruses).
- Atmosphere (live in it almost all types of living organisms that inhabit the Earth).
Man is also an integral part of the Biosphere of the planet. In General today there are about three million living organisms that form a living shell on a planetary scale.
The layout bounds of the Earth’s Biosphere
The spread of the Biosphere in the ecosystem of the planet has its limits, namely:
- 15 to 20 km in the upper atmosphere. As the definition of boundaries used the measurement of the thickness of the ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful UV radiation and cosmic radiation.
- From 4 to 8 km depth in the earth’s crust. These limits are able to live organisms of different species and subspecies, ranging from mammals and ending with the bacterial and viral forms of life.
- The depths of the oceans and smaller bodies of water. In the boundaries of the hydrosphere includes organisms living in the sediments.
What is the Biosphere
The biosphere, like any other system, has its own structure and consists of the following elements:
- Substance that contains life. This is the total of all living beings and organisms at the species, subspecies and Kingdom living on Earth. The existence of life on the planet is key to future development of the Earth as a space object. From the living material dependent on global geochemical reactions and processes as their distribution in the ecosystem is not uniform.
- Biogenic substance. By its nature, is a secondary product resulting from the processing of living organisms or other materials. For many millennia of existence of life on Earth, different organisms were passed through a huge amount of organic substances, which, after processing returned to the Biosphere in the form of minerals, mineral substances, carbonate deposits, etc.
- Rigid education. This substance, which appeared in the Biosphere by natural processes, not related to the activities of living organisms.
- Combined substance. Formed as a result of vital activity of living beings and natural phenomena. For example, the conversion of sludge to fertile soil after artificial drainage of wetlands by human hands.
- Substances radioactive decay. This chemical elements that have a natural radioactivity that are located within the lithosphere in the form of mineral deposits or caught in the environment as a result of anthropogenic human activities.
- Moving atoms. In the atmosphere are constantly moving scattered atoms of different earth substances.
- The substance of extraterrestrial origin. From time to time through the thick layers of the atmosphere to the Ground is a small amount of cosmic particles, which become part of a planetary ecosystem.
The Development Of The Biosphere
The process of evolution on the planet does not stop from the very first moment of development of the Biosphere as a closed ecological system. The cycle of life of the Biosphere can be divided into several stages:
- The origin of the first life. It happened about 4 billion years ago. The first life forms were simple single-celled creatures that mostly lived in the hydrosphere of the Earth. At that time almost the whole planet was covered with oceans. With the beginning of the formation of sushi single-celled organisms moved into the lithosphere began the complex process of distribution through the development of new and more nourishing environment. At this stage, formed by the separation of the sexual process.
- The current state of the Biosphere. Today, the Biosphere of the Earth full of different types of living organisms. The evolution of complex forms of life almost slowed down, and bacteria and viruses continue to evolve. Huge anthropogenic impact on the Biosphere has today, and people. Many species that have already disappeared from the face of the Earth, or are under threat of extinction.
- The Future Of The Biosphere. This stage is harder to predict, as the further development of the Biosphere depends on many factors, which can affect how the world of living organisms and man-made or natural processes. If the Land will continue to be so actively used by living organisms, then in 50 years the Earth’s Biosphere will be depleted and will overflow. However, historical data indicates that the Earth is able to control the balance of living creatures that fill the Biosphere.
For further positive development of the Biosphere every person on the planet should realize that the Land is his only and most beautiful house.