What is sinusitis? Causes, symptoms and treatment of sinusitis
About what sinusitis can think of any people who have just started to cough. The disease manifests itself as inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose. It often develops as a complication in various diseases, including rhinitis and acute. Better to know in advance about the features of this pathology, to faster and easier to cope with it.
Stands out many types of sinusitis, depending on its course, forms and causes. For example, there is an acute and chronic version of the disease. Sinusitis can occur with the appearance of exudate, serous or purulent effusion, with possible abnormal overgrowth of tissue and hyperplasia.
The name of this disease has its justification from the point of view of biology and translation. The word itself came from Latin language, where the term sinusitis is formed from the sinus, which means «bosom.» It simply added the suffix-itis in Latin means inflammation.
In Russian language the word sinus also exists. One of its values is the paranasal sinuses, which are also called additional. They represent a small region, which penetrate the air. The sinuses are connected with the bones of the skull and nose. About the development of sinusitis say, if this area starts the inflammatory process.
The reasons for the outbreak of the disease
There are many reasons why a person may develop one of the types of sinusitis. The disease can affect the upper sinuses, and then it is called sinusitis. If the inflammation is localized in the frontal sinuses, it is sinusitis, and if you are suffering cells of the ethmoid bone, etmoidit.
Finally, if the affected sphenoid sinus, talking about the beginning of sphenoiditis. All these disease develop due to different reasons. In General they can be divided into several groups:
- Associated with trauma,
- Complications from colds and flu,
- The result of the activities of bacteria,
- Mixed type
- Allergic reaction
- The result of drugs.
It is worth to analyze in more detail some individual cases, which lead to the development of sinusitis.
- Sometimes the disease begins as anomalies related to the formation of cavities and labyrinth of the nose.
- If people had an operation that affected this area was injured or often suffered from rhinitis or other disease, all this leads to deformations of the nasal cavity. They, in turn cause sinusitis.
- Viruses, infection in the acute form is a common cause of pathology.
- Some medical procedures also lead to disease sinusitis. For example, these include nasotracheal intubation, probing and tamponade.
- Sometimes due to improper removal of teeth in the oral cavity bacteria can thrive. Subsequently, they are able to rise above reaching the nose, causing inflammation.
In addition, you should pay attention for three special reasons. First, sinusitis can develop as a reaction to Smoking, to appear after exposure, and through inhalation of chemicals in hazardous enterprises.
What is sinusitis?
If the sinusitis can develop from even the common cold, why they do not hurt each other? To what extent it plays a role belonging to the risk group. It is believed that particularly predisposed to this disease, those who suffer from:
- diseases of the teeth,
- genetic disorders causing increased viscosity of secretions,
- HIV, AIDS and other immunodeficiency pathologies
- Syndrome Kartagener,
- A lack of thyroid hormones.
In addition, the administration of steroid and other drugs is also considered a risk factor for the development of sinusitis.
As a rule, in adults the disease begins with swelling of the nose, which generates a lot of thick mucus. As a result of the stagnation of the infection develops. People can easily probality for several months, after which he will recover, or acute sinusitis will become chronic.
The symptoms of the disease
In order to know what is sinusitis, it is necessary to clearly understand its symptoms. They may be slightly different, depending on the location and type of the disease, but some common features can be traced well.
- The disease begins with unpleasant sensations gradually increasing, which may have different localization. For example, the feeling is in the nose, next to him on the bridge of the nose or around the eyes. As a rule, the morning man becomes easier, and the night sensations.
- Gradually it develops into pain without localization, the patient simply feels that he has a headache. In the case of unilateral sinusitis pain syndrome also manifests itself on the one hand.
- Stuffy nose is a classic symptom of sinusitis. Of course, only it is impossible to diagnose, as it can mean almost anything. Most often the patient is unable to breathe through one nostril, and the voice gets slightly nasal. Sometimes everything is different, humans experience periods of relief, or lays only one bosom.
- All this is accompanied by quite abundant runny nose, which can be both transparent and yellowish. Snot absent in the case if your nose is stuffed too much.
- Inflammation involves the growth temperature. In case of sinusitis the patient may be 38 degrees Celsius and above. This is especially true for maxillary sinusitis in acute form, but chronic such usually does not occur.
- Weakness, lack of appetite and trouble sleeping – the classic ingredients of most infectious diseases, including sinusitis.
Finally, patients may sneeze and feel pain in my throat. Sometimes a runny nose and congestion lead to loss of smell, as well as the epithelium becomes quite dry. In addition to the immediate symptoms of the disease, sometimes when people are experiencing sinus pain in temples, jaw, forehead.
Touching the nose will not cause discomfort, excessive blockage of the time becomes the reason of tears. Some patients see night coughing, as lying down, the mucus drips down.
Complications and diagnosis
While sinusitis is often a complication, if untreated, may be other serious consequences.
- If a person suffers from sphenoiditis or atmedica, as a result of their able to begin the meningitis.
- In the case of penetration of a pathology deep in the bone, may develop osteomyelitis.
- If treatment is not received sinusitis, complications will manifest themselves in the form of epidural abscess of the brain, although it is also (but rarely) found subduralny option.
In addition, in various situations patients developed arachnoiditis, optic neuritis, abscess, thrombosis and other diseases. If complications managed to touch the skull and its insides, it can cause death. That’s why it is important timely diagnosis of the sinusitis.
The difficulties in this matter arise only in a fuzzy symptomatology. In other cases, the anamnesis and instrumental diagnostics allow to diagnose. Sometimes, this is done using:
- An MRI or CT scan,
- Medical-diagnostic puncture.
In rare cases it is necessary to donate blood or to undertake sowing of exudate. Finally, arrange a differential diagnosis to rule out rhinitis and some other diseases.
Treatment and prevention of disease
Most often to deal with sinus infection is possible with conservative methods. In rare cases, there is a need for surgical intervention. Overall, the process aims at eliminating the causative agent, if there is infection, as well as any other factors in the development of the disease. In addition:
- Eliminate the symptoms
- Help the sinuses
- Conduct prevention of complications
- Prevent the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
The standard for pathology patients do not need to go to the hospital, just visit an otolaryngologist. Put in the hospital seriously ill. Treatment consists of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antimykotika (if the reason in fungi), and antihistamines, with parasitic infestation.
Also use eye drops, special sprays and corticosteroids. Once over the acute phase, some patients are prescribed warming, pulmonary and other elements of physical therapy. With relatively severe patients use sinus evacuation, in other words – they do wash.
Finally, especially if the process is delayed, then the outflow of fluid mechanical help, use of puncture and drainage. If all else fails, then surgery will be scheduled. To prevent this, you need to take care of prevention, which is high-quality and timely treatment of other diseases, like colds, allergies, and dental pathologies.
In addition, do not interfere with the hardening, regularly and all the rules to clean the mouth and to avoid hypothermia, as this will put the person at risk.