What is mononucleosis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Mononucleosis is called an acute viral infectious disease. This disease is accompanied by swollen lymph nodes, fever, lesions of the mouth and throat, and fever. In addition, the disease affects the liver and spleen and promotes specific changes in the blood.
What is mononucleosis
Epstein-Barr is the main causative agent of this disease. While you can become infected from a sick person. Indeed, under the influence of the environment, the virus dries quickly, which leads to his death. But you need to be extremely careful with infected people, because the agent is excreted in their saliva within 6-18 months even after complete cure.
In the medical reference mononucleosis has several names, which include benign lymphoblasts, monocytic angina and disease Filatov.
Most often this disease affects children and adolescents and young people. The fact that the immune system of an adult is perfectly fight virus, Epstein-Barr, so cases after 40 years very little.
How dangerous this disease is
Mononucleosis is extremely dangerous because when ingested, the virus primarily attacks cells of the immune system. Moreover, this disease is herpes, and therefore, to completely get rid of it. And if the virus has entered the body, it stays there forever and the patient will become a lifelong carrier.
Once the infection, Epstein-Barr enters the cells of the immune system, they begin to transform, which leads to the production of antibodies not only to the virus but also to ourselves. And the intensity of multiplication of the affected cells leads to the filling of the lymph nodes and spleen, provokes the increase of these bodies. Present a special risk and antibodies to the virus. They become extremely aggressive and hitting any organ or tissue, can cause very serious autoimmune disease. Epstein-Barr can cause:
- Lupus erythematosus.
- The Thyroiditis Hashimoto’s.
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods of transmission of the virus
The most frequent type of how mononucleosis is transmitted, is the transmission of the virus by droplets from a sick to healthy. In addition, does not exclude the possibility of infection through the hands, kiss, sexual intercourse and even items. There is also the possibility of catching the virus from blood transfusions, as well as during childbirth. Most often, infectious mononucleosis occurs in mild form called atypical or abortive. But with a weak immune system, the virus generalissimum and the disease becomes visceral, that is serious.
The main symptoms
Mononucleosis has several main symptoms that are manifested during the first days after the defeat of the body by a virus. These include:
- Rash on the body.
- The plaque on the tonsils.
- Enlargement of lymph nodes.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Pain in the abdomen.
The development of the disease is gradual and the incubation period can last from 5 days to one month. It begins, seemingly banal sore throat and high temperature. So many people take these symptoms for normal the virus SARS. Over time, the fever and the rash is on the body and plaque disappears into the oropharynx. But after some time, the symptoms return and they are joined by poor appetite and General condition, as well as an increase in lymphoid nodes.
Diagnosis of the disease
To recognize a mononucleosis only after the laboratory tests. If you suspect this disease is assigned a series of tests that rule out diseases with similar symptoms. To make an accurate diagnosis is possible only with the collection of complete clinical and laboratory examination. Modern medicine makes it possible to detect the virus at an early stage, which allows to start treatment as early as possible and avoid the disease in a severe form.
How to treat mononucleosis
Light and medium form of mononucleosis successfully treated at home. But it is extremely important at this point to isolate the patient from healthy people. Complications or severe infected transferred to hospital. If the disease is burdened with the incidence of infection and liver, along with the medication prescribed therapeutic diet №5.
Specific means of treatment of this disease does not yet exist. Most often, patients are assigned a course of antibiotics and antiviral drugs. In addition, the patient must take a tonic, and drugs that promote detoxification of the body. Mononucleosis in children is treated with similar techniques, but after the therapy it is forbidden to do immunizations for at least six months.
The medical treatment
With a good immunity mononucleosis can pass even by himself. But at the same time, in order to avoid the disease in the chronic or severe, along with folk remedies, doctors recommend taking these medications:
- The paracetamol.
Of course, to take any drugs from this list only after doctor’s prescription.
To apply such funds only in light cases, but then it is not excluded the risk of various complications. So it is better to turn to doctors and traditional remedies to use as improve the General condition of the body. To alleviate the disease and reduce the symptoms will help these recipes:
- A decoction of sage, chamomile and calendula. Enhances immunity and promotes detoxification of the liver in infectious mononucleosis.
- A decoction of rose hips and chamomile. This infusion helps to reduce pain in the throat.
- Cabbage broth. Relieves fever and promotes rapid recovery.
Medical table # 5
As mono ruthlessly attacks the liver, when treatment is extremely important to follow the correct diet. During this period, you must consume foods rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. In addition, meals should be fractional and frequent, with up to 6 times a day. At this point, should be entirely excluded from the menu fatty, fried, salty and smoked foods, as well as mushrooms, chocolate and coffee. The allowed foods list:
- Lean meats, mainly chicken or rabbit.
- Low-fat dairy products.
- Fresh, steamed and baked vegetables.
- Fish soup.
- Lean marine fish.
- Day old bread, diet biscuits.
In the list of prohibited products, you can add ice cream, various cakes and pastries, beans, onions and garlic, and any meat products. In addition, during this period is strictly prohibited to add in food of butter or vegetable oil.
Prevention of mononucleosis
It is much easier to prevent illness than to spend long and exhausting treatment. To avoid becoming a victim of the disease need to take seriously the rules of personal hygiene: wash hands before eating, to avoid eating from another dish, and try less to kiss on the lips. But it is equally important to have a good immune system, which quickly and without a trace will cope with this virus. So the best prevention of this disease will become a healthy lifestyle, with proper nutrition and sufficient physical activity.