What is democracy?
In this article we will talk about what is democracy. This word has ancient Greek roots and translates as «democracy». Democracy as a political regime in which the right to vote are all citizens of the state, and the weight of their votes is absolutely smooth. What does the word «democracy» we have found out. Now, moving on to the specifics of this political regime.
Democracy has a number of characteristics:
- People have direct access to power and government. It belongs to the people the right to choose their rulers and throw them.
- Every citizen in a democratic state has the right to vote. The mechanism of expression about the government or any other political institution, is completely open.
- A democratic government gives the people a guarantee for the protection of their rights and freedoms. Therefore, democratic state, by law, can be called humane.
- The right to vote to all citizens, but to participate in making government decisions can only the most. If the initiator of any bills will be minority – they will not be heard.
- The minority has the right to be opposition and to put forward an opinion contrary to the majority opinion.
- In a democracy there is political pluralism, that is, perhaps, the presence of several large parties which have different ideologies and different strategies of the Board. In addition parties, political pluralism means the presence in the state several political groups, social organizations, political movements, etc. All these actors of the socio-political life are in competition.
- Due to the presence of the three branches of government: legislative, judicial and Executive, politics is no dictatorship and authoritarianism.
- Outdoor gear of the people control over governments. This may be due to a number of processes: the functioning of the press, regular maintenance of the power of progress reports, both at the state and local level.
- There is a procedure of a secret ballot, which were elected officials. Voting is conducted regularly. To take part in it can all attend, but to get people to participate in this procedure, no one can.
- The presence of authorities in the field. Thus, in a democratic state, open the contact mechanism and power of the people.
Consequently, the main distinguishing features of democracy are: first, the election of political leaders by secret ballot, and secondly, the legitimacy of people’s power, and, thirdly, public self-government. That’s what democracy is.
From the history mode
We can say that for the first time democracy has arisen in primitive-communal society. The first States in which this mode was dominant, it was Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece. In modern times democracy is «stuck» in the British colonies, but later throughout Europe.
The first manifestation of democracy could be seen in antique cities-States policies. There the Greeks arranged a meeting where the best and strongest representatives of the people decided the fate of the state. Later tradition has changed, and the meetings began to listen to all residents. But, it is worth noting that such meetings were held only for men, because women of that time had no political rights and freedoms.
To hold a meeting in the policy was not difficult as long as the number of inhabitants did not exceed a thousand men. This is logical, because to speak out each of the many present at the meeting simply could not. To some, the turn is simply not reached.
Often at such meetings is elected by the rulers. The procedure for the election of the ruler was carried out by two methods: the choice of the majority of the draw.
The thinkers of Ancient Greece were the first who wrote about democracy and about the political regime. For example, Plato was assessed democracy as a negative phenomenon, calling it «the power of the poor who envy the rich.» He believed that every democracy, sooner or later, will lead the people to tyranny. Aristotle believed this mode is valid, since in a democracy the majority will always be heard and understood.
Special contribution to policy development the democracy brought the Enlightenment, which marked the spread of humanism. Educators were bringing to the masses the idea that everyone is a political entity, and this means that he has the right to participate in important public Affairs and public decision-making.
Democracy as we know it, appeared only in the second half of the 19th century in Europe. At that time, the Europeans went to the polls to elect deputies. Therefore, in those days, began to appear the first political technologies, for example, the technology of PR. This became possible thanks to competition in the political arena.
Until the 19th century also carried political vote, but they cannot be called democratic, because to participate in them was allowed only to the richest citizens. As for visitors from other countries people, no right to elect the government, they had not. In the UK the percentage of the population having the right to elect deputies, not to exceed three percent. Women received political and electoral rights only in 1928.
These days, it a free access to the electoral process is the main principle of democracy. To participate in the procedure secret ballot all citizens over the age of 18 years.
Democracy has become a leader in the global distribution and operation. However, among the experts from various fields of science, going on for years, disputes over the fairness and correctness of a democratic regime.
The theory of democracy
Representatives of the theory are John Locke, Hobbes, and Charles de Montesquieu.
In any society must be liberalism, because only the free expression of public opinion can be social development. Liberalism is the normal state for each society, whose members feel relaxed and comfortable, because they worry for the safety of their rights and freedom. To ensure that the state of comfort can only be of a liberal democratic regime.
The theory of the consumer society
Representative – Jean Baudrillard. In his opinion, democracy influenced the development of the world processes of globalization. What a lot of people feel free, they begin to actively participate in the process of consumption. People are just brainwashed by advertising in the media, resulting in them there are artificially created demand. In such a society consumption erased differences between people. High feelings are secondary, the main thing for man is to satisfy secondary needs. Therefore, according to Baudrillard, democracy is a social evil.
The theory of elitism
– Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter. They believed that in every society there are always the ruling elite. The political elite – those people who concentrate in their hands the political, economic and cultural resources.