What irony is?
In this article we will talk about what irony is, and consider examples of irony. Let’s try to define what irony is.
The term has Greek roots and translates as «a sham». The irony called a hidden technique used in the art, which is opposed to the manifest content. You can also say that irony is when the negative words are the opposite of the literal content. For example: «Yeah, smart!» or «a Real daredevil!». Often we are faced with the irony in film and literature. In these arts she had gained most a wide circulation. But theatre-lovers, too, are probably faced with the irony of the characters on stage.
That is, this method always contains a certain implication. Sometimes subtext can hurt, sometimes to amuse, but there are occasions when irony may introduce human error. Anyway, this is a very interesting technique, which adds a particular piece of flavor. Thus, we have decided what the word «irony».
The history of irony
This trend has appeared in the times of Ancient Greece, 5th century BC. It was first used in literature and in philosophy. This fact is confirmed by many researchers of irony. When the ancient Greek philosophers used the irony that they were trying to emphasize the opposite of what was said. It turns out that they used the technique, so-called rhetorical deception. This means that at the moment of pronunciation of the words, people do not believe in their meaning, thinking quite the opposite. Such speech activity soon came into practice almost all the philosophers of Ancient Greece. Using irony, as if they mocked all around. Very soon it was not just a joke, but a real way of thinking. Speakers were trying to be ironic in order to find the truth through refutation of lies.
In those days there were the first form of irony, which he called «sokratova». Sokratova irony meant that at the time of the discussion of persons used it, so they abandoned their initial judgments, reaching sometimes to absurd conclusions. Socrates used irony in order to humiliate your opponent at the time of the dispute. Also, he contrasted his ordinariness and banality. Thus, this kind of direction is in order to find the truth.
Aristotle believed that irony always contains a certain derision opinion. To disagree with this difficult. People who have used this technique, the philosopher called «ironically». He said that these people describe the world in black paint, speaking about itself a lie. According to Aristotle, irony is one of the major extremes which should be avoided.
Later this technique became widely used in the rhetorical art. Irony has become one of the favorite techniques that the speakers used in order to impress the audience. But to produce a really strong effect on the audience by using irony, the speaker had to possess the gift of eloquence, good diction and, of course, a great experience. That is why those speakers who have managed to conquer the audience with his ironic manner, quickly became famous and popular.
In those times of Antiquity, the irony began to be used for entertainment purposes. Arranged theatre performances with ironic comedies that delighted the audience. And in the Middle ages, this area is so loved people that just became part of their culture. In those days, began to use self-irony, where it was derided by the main participants of the show. Some scenes of the theatre, which was attended by ironic performances, led the audience in raptures. People like to see actors make fun of themselves.
During the Renaissance, irony has become a tradition. She was everywhere: in the theater, in literature, in everyday communication, as well as at various festivals and ceremonies. Fashionable at that time were clowns, with their street performance. Jesters used irony as a hidden allusion was often made fun of, therefore, over the hosts. The peak of development of this direction falls on the 19th century.
It turns out that irony has existed in all times, the development of human thinking. Each used her for their own purposes. Someone was trying to attract attention, someone to make fun of the opponent, and someone who just wanted to cheer the audience, ridiculed human vices.
The types of irony
The form of expression and sentiment, irony is:
- Comical. This type of irony is the most humane and the most common in all types of art. There is a comic mockery (ridicule) someone or something. It always has a sense of humor. The humor may be black, depending on the object of derision and target speaker. For example, humor will be friendly, if he feels sympathy for the object, and unfriendly, in the case of dislikes.
- Satirical. The irony is the purpose of «the scourging of Vice». Using this form of irony, he focuses on the idealized and not on social issues. The purpose of satirical irony is correcting the social flaws after preliminary of their ridicule.
- Tragic. This irony always has some dramatic consequences. He feels sympathy for the world, but, nevertheless, the object of derision is a victim of circumstances and deserves sympathy of the speaker.
- Nihilistic. Such an irony intended to drive a wedge between the object of ridicule. Her personality does not justify their hopes. In nihilistic irony, the speaker expresses his custody object of ridicule. He positions himself as a rebel, a critic and a cynic, who does not want to take into account any meaning associated with the object of ridicule.
- Skeptical. She strives to Express its lack of confidence in the object of ridicule. It takes into account the variability and uncertainty of the world. The system of values is questioned. The irony is the bar, and smoothly into the dialectic.
- The absolute (radical). At the time of such ironic derision is the process of transformation of identity. That kind of irony is called «the spirit of disorder.» Its use is accompanied by the euphoria of the speaker who seeks to change lives.
In addition, irony can be classified according to form:
- Video. This irony has a specific purpose: to ridicule, to give the said opposite sense, to question said opponent, etc.
- Antiiranian. Its main aim is the representation of an object of derision undervalued and inferior.
- The irony. The irony is aimed only at himself. Its purpose is ridiculing your own vices, your own personality.
In addition, some isolated «ironic worldview.» This is a special state of mind that allows you to relate to social norms, values and stereotypes, with a certain degree of freedom.