Protrusion of spinal discs — what is it?
Our spine consists of segments, intervertebral discs, designed to move and perform supporting function. Over time, bone tissue undergoes various changes, which contribute to the occurrence of pain or even neurological disorders of the spine. One such change is the protrusion of spinal discs. What is it? How to spot disease and how to get rid of it?
Protrusion of spinal discs – what is it
In medicine, a disc protrusion is called pathology, which is the protrusion of the contour of the intervertebral disc. With regard to the fibrous ring, it stays intact. The protrusion is always accompanied by low back pain. To ignore the disease, as in the absence of treatment, it can contribute to a herniated disc and as a result a disability.
All the intervertebral discs have the following structure:
- The nucleus pulposus is a gel – like substance that fills the disk and consists of proteoglycans and collagen fibers. Proteoglycans is needed to keep the inside of the disk a sufficient amount of water, which ensures proper shock absorption.
- Fibrous ring, which is composed entirely of collagen fibers. The main function of the ring is to protect the nucleus pulposus and the maintenance of the physiological shape of the disk.
In the intervertebral discs, blood vessels, and therefore, for the power they use nutrients that come from the surrounding tissue. If this process is disturbed, begins to develop protrusion.
It should be noted that not all disks are equally prone to damage. Most affected are those that are experiencing excessive load – cervical and lumbar discs. The minimum load is tested the thoracic spine.
The causes of the disease
A number of reasons contributes to the appearance of the protrusion. Among them:
- Age. Over time, the body of each person, there are degenerative and dystrophic processes in the tissues of the spine;
- physical inactivity and passive lifestyle;
- various curvature of the spine, including deformation resulting injuries;
- inflammatory processes in the tissues of vertebrates;
- birth defects of the spine;
- the absence of changes in body position over a long period of time (sitting at the computer, and the like), resulting in a static tension of the spine;
- increased physical activity, including sports;
- flat feet, deformities of the joints;
- diseases associated with impaired metabolic processes in the body;
- bad habits;
- genetic predisposition;
- incorrect body position during sleep, the cause of which can be the wrong choice of pillow, mattress, etc.
By eliminating the described risk factors, we can almost 90% to reduce the risk of protrusion.
The types of protrusions
Depending on in which direction a bulging disc, there are different types of the disease.
This species differs even on all sides the album release for their natural limits. This abnormality develops slowly. They are characterized by long-term chronic development. The result is a circular protrusion decreases disk height, which threatens to further complications. If it is not treated, it will lead to disability.
For this kind of protrusion characterized by a limited bulging disc to one side:
- gorzelnia – change in the direction of the spinal canal, so this is the most unfavorable and the risk of occurrence of neurological symptoms;
- lateral protrusion – changes right or left relative to the spine, this pathology rarely leads to neurological complications and usually occurs without specific symptoms;
- ventral protrusion – bulging forward, this pathology is rare, occurs without specific symptoms and does not lead to complications. Therefore, treatment is usually not carried out.
The symptoms of the disease may differ substantially from each other depending on the area of occurrence, type of disease and related changes that may occur in the spinal tissue.
Since the neck is very mobile, and protrusion in this place there are often. To suspect the emergence of a protrusion, the patient can, on the basis of the following symptoms:
- pain is usually acute, which is spreading across the hand and may radiate to the shoulder area;
- a feeling of numbness of the neck, shoulder girdle and upper limbs, feeling of weakness in them;
- discomfort during movements of the head;
- headaches which are prevalent in the neck, or dizziness;
- the increase in pressure.
This type of disease is extremely dangerous, because in addition to compression of spinal roots compression of the vertebral artery. This pathology is able to provoke a violation of the circulation of the brain. Sometimes it becomes the cause of the stroke.
The vertebrae of this division is almost stationary, and therefore the disease is rarely diagnosed here. But in the case of its occurrence, the patient complains of such symptoms:
- pain between the shoulder blades and the feeling of stiffness;
- shortness of breath and pain when inhaling;
- the sensation of pain, which is often confused with heart.
These symptoms are characteristic of a number of diseases, so diagnosis is difficult.
The spine undergoes tremendous stress, so its intervertebral discs are often damaged. Among the main symptoms of the disease in this part of the spine:
- a variety of pain in the lumbar region, from time to time they can be felt in the leg;
- sciatica episodes;
- various disorders in the internal organs located in the pelvic region;
- numbness of the feet or a feeling of heaviness in them;
- the development of paralysis;
- erectile dysfunction in men and pain in the pelvic region in women.
To confirm the diagnosis, the patient appoint radiography, CT or MRI.
Treatment of protrusion
The treatment of the disease should be long and have complex. For the relief of pain prescribed therapy, which not only eliminates pain but also helps relieve swelling, inflammation, prevents spazmirovannah muscles, adjusts the metabolic processes of tissues and blood circulation.
No conservative methods are not able to cure the protrusion. However, they can pause the process of development of pathology. Such methods include:
- traction of the spine;
- manual correction;
- the Spa treatment.
In extreme cases may require surgical intervention, which is always accompanied by a certain risk. Therefore, it is resorted to only in extreme cases and only after conservative therapy.