How HIV is transmitted?
HIV infection is a disease that progresses very slowly, but eventually leads to the development of AIDS. These pathologies can be considered one of present-day problems, so now people with childhood talk about how HIV is transmitted, how to avoid infection and what to do if it happened.
What is important to know about the human immunodeficiency virus?
A key feature of this retrovirus is that it does not cause any disease by itself. Pathological organisms attacking the human immune system, which is responsible for the body’s ability to fight diseases.
Thus, the impact of HIV, the human body is almost unable to defend itself against diseases. The point here is, unfortunately, not only prone to colds, but also in the development of numerous diseases and opportunistic diseases.
For the first time about the existence of the virus began in the early eighties. During this time, scientists managed to push the term AIDS and its definition, and in 1984, found the link between the disease and its possible causes. The retrovirus was discovered in ‘ 83. Nowadays, practically everyone knows.
What is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome?
The concept of HIV and AIDS are inextricably linked. The first is a slowly progressive disease that affects the immune system. The second is the final stage of this disease is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Its symptoms are manifested in many different ways. First, many patients starts Pneumocystis pneumonia. To identify the virus, the diagnosis was often fatal. Besides him, tuberculosis is common, especially in countries that are developing.
From the point of view of the gastrointestinal tract appears esophagitis and chronic diarrhea. Also there are psychiatric complications, the development of toxoplasmosis, metabolic encephalopathy and, of course, tumors. However, this is all the satellites of AIDS and what happens in the final stage?
Peculiarities of HIV infection
The result of this disease may be different. If the patient receives no treatment, he is able to live within 9-11 years after infection. The period will largely depend on the viral subtype. When the disease reaches the stage of AIDS, the person will live less than a year.
The inability of the body to counteract various pathologies often leads to the fact that the patient die much earlier possible time. However, the holding of a special antiretroviral therapy is changing the probable duration of 70-80 years, which, objectively speaking, almost equal to the average duration of human life.
For this reason, it is important to recognize the disease and begin proper treatment. This will help on two issues: how HIV is transmitted and what its symptoms are.
How HIV is transmitted?
There are two main ways of transmission of this disease. In addition, it is necessary to consider key risk groups and individual cases, in which there was an infection.
- Most often the disease is sexually transmitted. Typically, this occurs in homosexual contacts, relations with prostitutes and anal sex, which is often accompanied by the appearance of microcracks. Any unprotected contact with untested partner can cause the contamination.
- The second method of transmission is the blood. For example, a person ill with HIV-infection if he transfused the blood of a patient donor, but the medical equipment reduces that possibility to zero. Infection also occurs through cuts. If the tool that was used to work with HIV-positive person, without prior sterilization would be applied to someone else, he is at risk for infection.
In addition, the disease can be transmitted by inheritancefrom mother to child. This happens not always, but according to statistics, a third of children carry the virus due to the fact that he was sick mother.
How can you get infected with HIV?
Thus, the main methods of transmission of the disease – is the blood and unprotected sexual contact. There are a number of situations that can lead to disease. First, the risk is large enough in tattoo parlors, if they do not pay sufficient attention to disinfection.
Should be applied only in checked places where security is observed very strictly. Of course, even the most elite salons can not guarantee one hundred percent security. So, if the fear is to get too large, it is better to completely abandon the piercing and tattoos.
Never use one needle for injections twice, not to mention, to convey it to other people. In the nineties it was one of the most common causes of HIV infection is constantly happening among drug users.
Thus, there are several risk groups:
- People who use drugs;
- Representatives of sexual minorities;
- Prostitutes and those who use their services;
- Practicing non-traditional sex;
- People who have casual relationships without protection;
- Donors and those who receive blood;
- Children of sick mothers;
- People who already suffer from diseases with similar transmission method;
- The staff who work with patients with HIV infection.
Infection at home
People who always use condoms and have nothing to do with blood and needles often think about how HIV is transmitted in the home. For starters, you should calm down – the risk of disease in such conditions is minimal. However, the possibility is still there.
First, contamination in the building had to be already sick person. In this case, if his blood gets into someone else, well, we’ll pass the pathogen. As a rule, as a means of infection consider razors. So it is enough to each have your own, and the illness will not be transmitted. In addition to the machine, the blood can get to another man for using knives and other cutting objects.
Also, how do you get HIV, it is important to understand the disease cannot be transmitted. For example, you should not be afraid of skin contact or even from saliva or faeces. Swimming in the same pool, common towel, the toilet seat up or dishes – all this will not lead to HIV infection.
In addition, the disease is not airborne – one person does not pick up the pathology just by being near an infected. Even kissing, Smoking common cigarettes, you use the same lipstick and so on – all this cannot cause HIV.
How to notice the onset of the disease?
Simple prevention, including monitoring the disinfection of needles and use of condoms can protect a person from HIV and AIDS. However, it is necessary to know the basic symptoms of disease, to promptly see a doctor and to minimize possible problems.
In infection there are several stages of the incubation period, the primary and secondary manifestations, and finally the terminal phase. As a rule, the disease fails to notice when its secondary symptoms, as at first they are too small. Most people is trying not to pay attention to such manifestations, but, even when access to a doctor, tests may show nothing.
If the primary symptoms within three months, the secondary becomes visible several years after infection.
- In the early stages among many is the inflammation of the tonsils, frequent sore throat, inflamed lymph nodes.
- The temperature is not reduced under the influence of drugs.
- Weakness, trouble sleeping and perspiration is also a symptoms which are often overlooked.
There are other signs that appear not always – a pale pink rash, pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhoea, enlarged liver and spleen. Some starts meningitis, encephalitis, and esophagitis.
After that, within a certain time will go asymptomatic stage. Then it will be replaced by a strong increase in lymph nodes, all except inguinal, and later start secondary manifestations. They include a wide variety of diseases, from pneumonia to damage to the nervous system.
Fortunately, if you know how HIV is transmitted, they will be suspected pathology before it reaches this stage. Timely treatment is able to minimize all possible risks.