How to choose the caliber of the bullet depending on the animal for a successful hunt
First, the size of the caliber determines the destination of the rifled barrel. The contrast of the barrel smoothbore, caliber 10 — 16, sometimes 20, tackled similar tasks with different efficiency, rifle caliber has a more narrow specificity. It is the size of the caliber determines the difference rifled barrel which is designed for squirrel hunting, from the trunk, which is intended for shooting elephants.
The main rule, which will allow you to quickly determine the need for ammunition of a specific caliber for shooting a specific animal species is the very energy of the bullet on the full length of the flight, which is equal to or greater than the body weight of a specific animal (with the value of energy, which is expressed in kgf. m), or one that exceeds the weight ten times (with a value of energy, measured in joules). If all conditions are met, the ratio of energy to weight, You can prevent unnecessary wounded game, of course when hit in a lethal place of the animal. But the most lethal place to be larger, the larger the energy of the ball, thus, the cartridge with the increased energy allows for a lower accuracy.
Also remember that the bullet transfers its energy to the animal body only option, if, after entering will remain in the carcass, but did not pierce it through. So it is better to use a soft bullet with a blunt or flat nose, which deform much better and faster.
For example, balls Silvertip, which has a caliber .308Win and with the weight cartridge Winchester 9.7 grams will be quite enough to hunt deer with an approximate weight of 200 kg at a distance of up to 220 meters, because its energy at this distance of at least 2000 joules.
But do not forget that in addition to the knockdown of bullets, one of the decisive factors is not only energy, but stops the ability of the ball. Will be of little use when You shoot a bear with a bullet caliber of 7.64, once in the lungs? With such a wound the bear dies for many kilometers from the place where it was shot. Not it just will not be able to find and precious and long-awaited trophy will be senselessly lost.
Stops the possibility of the ball is proportional to the area of its cross-section (radius squared), so, the bullet with the caliber .375H&H with a diameter of at 9.53 mm can stop animal 1.34 times more effective than the same bullet with the caliber of 8.57 JS diameter of 8.22 mm, but only with the condition of same weight, velocity and the same design.
In addition, large caliber guarantees a 100% chance of shooting the beast with the defeat of not only high knockdown, such as head, spinal cord and heart, but with the defeat of the muscular tissues bordering the vital organs, which significantly expands the opportunity for a specific use weapons. This is especially effective when shooting animals that are moving, when it is difficult to precision aiming.
Stops the possibility of the ball contrary to the range of the munition, because with equal conditions (weight and initial speed), the balls, which is dominated by good stopping ability (flat-nosed), have a reduced rate to reduce the speed on the trajectory than a bullet with a sharp nose, when shot at long distance. Blunt bullets with a weight of 15.55 grams and caliber .444 Marlin with an initial speed of 716 m/s, have energies of about 3993 j and have excellent stopping capability.
To summarize — it is better when the caliber will have excess energy for ejection of a particular type of game, than insufficient.